Molecular biology of ADAMTS13 and diagnostic utility of ADAMTS13 proteolytic activity and inhibitor assays.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis (Impact Factor: 3.69). 01/2006; 31(6):659-72. DOI: 10.1055/s-2005-925472
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT ADAMTS13, a reprolysin-like metalloprotease, limits platelet-rich thrombus formation in the small arteries by cleaving von Willebrand factor (vWF) at the Tyr1605-Met1606 peptide bond. Deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity, due to either an inherited or an acquired etiology, may lead to a potentially lethal syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Molecular cloning and characterization of the ADAMTS13 gene have provided further insight into the structure-function relationships, biosynthesis, and regulation of the ADAMTS13 protease, in addition to understanding the pathogenesis of TTP and perhaps other thrombotic disorders. ADAMTS13 consists of a short propeptide, a typical reprolysin-like metalloprotease domain, followed by a disintegrin-like domain, first thrombospondin type 1 (TSP1) repeat, Cys-rich domain, and spacer domain. The carboxyl terminus of ADAMTS13 has seven more TSP1 repeats and two CUB domains. ADAMTS13 is synthesized mainly in hepatic stellate cells, but also in vascular endothelial cells. Recognition and cleavage of vWF require the proximal carboxyl terminal domains, but not the middle and distal carboxyl terminal domains. Cleavage of vWF appears to be modulated by shear force, binding to platelet or platelet glycoprotein-1balpha, heparin, inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6), and chloride ion. At the site of thrombus formation, the ADAMTS13 may be inactivated by thrombin, plasmin, and factor Xa. Having a sensitive and specific assay for ADAMTS13 activity is not only critical to understand the basic biology of ADAMTS13 protease, but also to facilitate a more timely and accurate clinical diagnosis of TTP, and to initiate potentially life-saving plasma exchange therapy. Although many assays have been developed and tested for clinical applications, the fluorescent resonance energy transfer-vWF73 assay appears to be the simplest and most promising assay to date.

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Previous studies in adults and mice have implicated ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13), also known as von Willebrand factor (VWF)-cleaving protease, as a protective factor for stroke. Here we investigated ADAMTS13 in 208 pediatric patients with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and 125 population-based control children in a frequency-matched case-control study. METHODS: The proportion of patients/controls with ADAMTS13 activity levels below and above the 10th percentile was compared. Additionally, in a quintile comparison, the proportion of patients versus controls in the lowest ADAMTS13 quintile was compared to those in the 2nd to 5th quintiles. Adjustment was performed for VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), factor VIII activity (FVIII:C), blood group, and age. RESULTS: Forty-six of 208 patients (22%) showed ADAMTS13 levels below the 10th percentile, compared with 5 of 125 controls (4%; p < 0.001). Odds ratios/95% confidence intervals were 7.30/2.73-19.50 for the lowest percentile and 2.44/1.15-5.16 in the quintile comparison after adjustment for VWF:Ag, FVIII:C, blood group, and age. Comparing the proportion of patients with ADAMTS13 activity below the 10th percentile within the different stroke subtypes (undetermined, cardioembolic, steno-occlusive arteriopathies), no statistically significant differences were found (undetermined, 16 of 89; cardioembolic, 6 of 40; steno-occlusive arteriopathies, 24 of 79; p = 0.08). ADAMTS13 levels did not significantly differ among stroke subtypes (p = 0.29). INTERPRETATION: Our findings implicate reduced ADAMTS13 activity as a risk factor for pediatric AIS, and support the concept that ADAMTS13 has a role in the pathogenesis of pediatric AIS. ANN NEUROL 2012.
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