Anxiety sensitivity-physical concerns as a moderator of the emotional consequences of emotion suppression during biological challenge: an experimental test using individual growth curve analysis.
ABSTRACT Anxiety-related responding to, and recovery from, a 5-min 10% carbon dioxide-enriched air presentation among 80 participants with no history of psychopathology was examined. Half of participants were instructed to suppress challenge-induced emotional responses, whereas their matched counterparts were instructed to observe such responses. Responding from immediately post-challenge through a 10-min recovery period was analyzed as a function of Anxiety Sensitivity-Physical Concerns and experimental condition using individual growth curve modeling. Anxiety Sensitivity-Physical Concerns moderated the effect of suppression only on emotion valence during recovery. In terms of main effects, suppression resulted in increased heart rate during recovery and Anxiety Sensitivity-Physical Concerns was positively associated with post-challenge self-reported anxiety. Results are discussed in terms of the potential role of inhibition-oriented affect regulation processes in the etiology of panic disorder.
- SourceAvailable from: Matthew T Tull
Dataset: ASC2007 Tulletal
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There has been a recent proliferation of research evaluating the efficacy of mindfulness as a clinical intervention. However, there is still little known about trait mindfulness, or how trait mindfulness interacts with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. The current study further explores the effect of trait mindfulness on emotion regulation, as well as whether specific factors of trait mindfulness are uniquely associated with subjective and autonomic reactivity to stress. Forty-eight healthy male participants were trained in the use of the suppression strategy and then instructed to suppress their responses to the inhalation of a 15% CO2-enriched air mixture for 90 s while their subjective distress and heart rate were recorded. After controlling for anxiety-related variables, the ability to provide descriptions of observed experiences predicted less heart rate reactivity to CO2 inhalation, while skillfulness at restricting attention to the present moment was uniquely predictive of less subjective distress. The tendency to attend to bodily or sensory stimuli predicted greater distress during CO2 inhalation. The inclusion of only healthy males limits the generalizability of study findings. Also, the sample size was relatively small. These findings suggest that factors associated with trait mindfulness predict less stress reactivity and distress while engaging in suppression above and beyond other variables that have been shown to predict anxious responding. The implications for emotion and clinical research are discussed.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 07/2013; 45(1):57-66. DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.07.006 · 2.23 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adults with panic disorder (PD) and children with separation anxiety disorder (CSAD) show higher reactivity to CO(2). Our hypothesis was patients with adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) would show similar hypersensitivity to CO(2). In the present study, we determined whether sensitivity to CO(2) was enhanced in adult patients with separation anxiety disorder with no history of panic attacks. Patients with PD (n=38), adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) patients with no history of panic attacks (n=31), and healthy subjects (n=40) underwent a 35% CO(2) inhalation challenge procedure. Baseline and post-inhalation anxiety were assessed with the Acute Panic Inventory, Visual Analog Scale, and Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3). As hypothesized the rate of CO(2)-induced panic attacks was significantly greater in PD and ASAD patient groups (55.3% and 51.6% respectively) than healthy comparison group (17.5%). Nine (69.2%) of 13 patients in PD group who have ASAD concurrent with PD had a CO(2)-induced panic attack. ASI-3 total scores were not different between PD and ASAD groups and both were significantly higher than controls. However, anxiety sensitivity did not predict the occurrence of panic attacks. The researchers were not blind to the diagnosis and there was no placebo arm for comparison. Besides, parameters of respiratory physiology were not evaluated. ASAD was associated with CO(2) hypersensitivity quite similar to PD. This finding partly unfolds the complex relationship of 'CSAD, PD, and CO(2) hypersensitivity' and indicates that CO(2) hypersensitivity and separation anxiety extend together beyond childhood.Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2012; 141(2-3):315-23. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2012.03.032 · 3.71 Impact Factor