Anxiety-related responding to, and recovery from, a 5-min 10% carbon dioxide-enriched air presentation among 80 participants with no history of psychopathology was examined. Half of participants were instructed to suppress challenge-induced emotional responses, whereas their matched counterparts were instructed to observe such responses. Responding from immediately post-challenge through a 10-min recovery period was analyzed as a function of Anxiety Sensitivity-Physical Concerns and experimental condition using individual growth curve modeling. Anxiety Sensitivity-Physical Concerns moderated the effect of suppression only on emotion valence during recovery. In terms of main effects, suppression resulted in increased heart rate during recovery and Anxiety Sensitivity-Physical Concerns was positively associated with post-challenge self-reported anxiety. Results are discussed in terms of the potential role of inhibition-oriented affect regulation processes in the etiology of panic disorder.
"Moreover, both experiential avoidance and emotional inexpressivity have been found to predict dysregulated emotional responding, including elevated physiological arousal and subjective distress in response to emotionallyevocative stimuli (Campbell-Sills, Barlow, Brown, & Hofmann, 2006; Feldner, Zvolensky, Eifert, & Spira, 2003; Feldner, Zvolensky, Stickle, Bonn-Miller, & Leen-Feldner, 2006; Gross & Levenson, 1993, 1997; Karekla, Forsyth, & Kelly, 2004). For example, the avoidance of emotions through suppression has been found to be associated with (a) greater physiological arousal during a negative emotion-inducing film clip, as well as a slower reductions in negative affect following the film clip (Campbell-Sills et al., 2006); and (b) heightened physiological arousal following CO 2 inhalation (Feldner et al., 2006). Further, Gross and Levenson (1993, 1997) found that the suppression of emotional expression (i.e. "
"Heart rate reactivity has reliably demonstrated a strong relationship with anxiety and panic (Bernston & Cacioppo, 2004; Bystritsky, Craske, Maidenberg, Vapnik, & Shapiro, 2000), and may even serve as an early marker for developmental risk (Monk et al., 2004). Consistent with previous CO 2 challenge studies (e.g., Feldner, Zvolensky, et al., 2006; Kutz, Marshall, Bernstein, Zvolensky, 2010; Levitt et al., 2004; Richey, Schmidt, Hofmann, & Timpano, 2010; Schmidt et al., 2007; Telch, Harrington, Smits, & Powers, 2011) and suppression studies (e.g., Campbell-Sills et al., 2006; Gross & Levenson, 1993; Hofmann, Heering, Sawyer, & Asnaani, 2009), we measured heart rate as an autonomic indicator of anxiety. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been a recent proliferation of research evaluating the efficacy of mindfulness as a clinical intervention. However, there is still little known about trait mindfulness, or how trait mindfulness interacts with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. The current study further explores the effect of trait mindfulness on emotion regulation, as well as whether specific factors of trait mindfulness are uniquely associated with subjective and autonomic reactivity to stress.
Forty-eight healthy male participants were trained in the use of the suppression strategy and then instructed to suppress their responses to the inhalation of a 15% CO2-enriched air mixture for 90 s while their subjective distress and heart rate were recorded.
After controlling for anxiety-related variables, the ability to provide descriptions of observed experiences predicted less heart rate reactivity to CO2 inhalation, while skillfulness at restricting attention to the present moment was uniquely predictive of less subjective distress. The tendency to attend to bodily or sensory stimuli predicted greater distress during CO2 inhalation.
The inclusion of only healthy males limits the generalizability of study findings. Also, the sample size was relatively small.
These findings suggest that factors associated with trait mindfulness predict less stress reactivity and distress while engaging in suppression above and beyond other variables that have been shown to predict anxious responding. The implications for emotion and clinical research are discussed.
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 07/2013; 45(1):57-66. DOI:10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.07.006 · 2.23 Impact Factor
"ably reduce negative experiences, and paradoxically increases psychophysiological and neurobiological indices of negative emotional responding (Feldner, Zvolensky, Stickle, Bonn-Miller, Leen-Feldner, 2006; Gross & Levenson, 1997). In contrast, cognitive reappraisal is typically adaptive, as it is effective at down-regulating (reducing) unpleasant emotion in a broad range of contexts, without deleterious physiological or cognitive consequences (Gross, 1998b). "
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