Imatinib mesylate (STI571) abrogates the resistance to doxorubicin in human K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells by inhibition of BCR/ABL kinase-mediated DNA repair.
ABSTRACT Imatinib mesylate (STI571), a specific inhibitor of BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase, exhibits potent antileukemic effects in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, the precise mechanism by which inhibition of BCR/ABL activity results in pharmacological responses remains unknown. BCR/ABL-positive human K562 CML cells resistant to doxorubicin (K562DoxR) and their sensitive counterparts (K562DoxS) were used to determine the mechanism by which the STI571 inhibitor may overcome drug resistance. K562 wild type cells and CCRF-CEM lymphoblastic leukemia cells without BCR/ABL were used as controls. The STI571 specificity was examined by use of murine pro-B lymphoid Baf3 cells with or without BCR/ABL kinase expression. We examined kinetics of DNA repair after cell treatment with doxorubicin in the presence or absence of STI571 by the alkaline comet assay. The MTT assay was used to estimate resistance against doxorubicin and Western blot analysis with Crk-L antibody was performed to evaluate BCR/ABL kinase inhibition by STI571. We provide evidence that treatment of CML-derived BCR/ABL-expressing leukemia K562 cells with STI571 results in the inhibition of DNA repair and abrogation of the resistance of these cells to doxorubicin. We found that doxorubicin-resistant K562DoxR cells exhibited accelerated kinetics of DNA repair compared with doxorubicin-sensitive K562DoxS cells. Inhibition of BCR/ABL kinase in K562DoxR cells with 1 microM STI571 decreased the kinetics of DNA repair and abrogated drug resistance. The results suggest that STI571-mediated inhibition of BCR/ABL kinase activity can affect the effectiveness of the DNA-repair pathways, which in turn may enhance drug sensitivity of leukemia cells.
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ABSTRACT: Expression of the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein alters various aspects of hematopoietic cells. We investigated the effects of a Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, on the proliferation, adhesive properties, and morphology of a Bcr-Abl-transferred cell line, TF-1 Bcr-Abl, in comparison with parental TF-1. First, the factor-independent growth of TF-1 Bcr-Abl was inhibited in the presence of imatinib mesylate, but this inhibition was overcome by addition of exogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Imatinib mesylate remarkably reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl, Cbl, and Crkl in a time-dependent manner, and their complex formation also was affected. Imatinib mesylate inhibited activation of Stat5 rather than the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway. TF-1 Bcr-Abl cells exhibited a round shape, unlike TF-1, and the adhesive property to fibronectin was much lower than that of TF-1. Although the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein may be involved negatively in cell adhesion, the decreased adhesion and altered morphology of TF-1 Bcr-Abl cells were minimally affected by imatinib mesylate and seemed independent of Bcr-Abl kinase activity. The present data indicated that the Bcr-Abl-specific kinase inhibitor cannot control Bcr-Abl-induced cell alterations other than autonomous growth.International Journal of Hematology 11/2003; 78(3):233-40. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chromosomal translocations of tyrosine kinase c-ABL gene from chromosome 9 may generate oncogenic kinases exhibiting constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. Recently, we have shown that ABL-fusion oncogenic tyrosine kinases, BCR/ABL and TEL/ABL, specific to hematopoietic malignances, induced resistance to DNA-damaging agents. To elucidate the role of DNA repair in this phenomenon we examined the capacity of murine BaF3 lymphoid cells and their TEL/ABL-transformed counterparts to repair DNA lesions caused by gamma- and UV-radiations and the anti-cancer drug, idarubicin. TEL/ABL-transformed cells displayed resistance to these DNA damaging agents as evaluated by MTT assay and the survival advantage was associated with an accelerated kinetics of DNA repair as measured by the alkaline comet assay. Deoxyribonucleosides (dNTPs) supplementation of the repair medium further stimulated DNA repair and the effect was specific to the DNA damage agent used in the experiment but only the transformed cells displayed this feature. A variety of damages induced imply the multi-pathway of DNA repair involved. We also examined the capability of BCR/ABL-fusion to modulate the repair of oxidative lesions, considered as a major side effect of various anti-cancer drugs including idarubicin and radiation. Employing the free radical scavenger alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN, a spin trap) and DNA repair enzymes: endonuclease III (EndoIII) that nicks DNA at sites of oxidized bases, we found that BCR/ABL-transformed cells repaired oxidative DNA lesions more effectively than control cells. Our results suggest, that oncogenic ABL-dependent stimulation of DNA repair may contribute to the cell resistance to genotoxic treatment.Biochimie 02/2004; 86(1):53-65. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: c-Abl is normally regulated by an autoinhibitory mechanism, the disruption of which leads to chronic myelogenous leukemia. The details of this mechanism have been elusive because c-Abl lacks a phosphotyrosine residue that triggers the assembly of the autoinhibited form of the closely related Src kinases by internally engaging the SH2 domain. Crystal structures of c-Abl show that the N-terminal myristoyl modification of c-Abl 1b binds to the kinase domain and induces conformational changes that allow the SH2 and SH3 domains to dock onto it. Autoinhibited c-Abl forms an assembly that is strikingly similar to that of inactive Src kinases but with specific differences that explain the differential ability of the drug STI-571/Gleevec/imatinib (STI-571) to inhibit the catalytic activity of Abl, but not that of c-Src.Cell 04/2003; 112(6):859-71. · 31.96 Impact Factor