Estimating the resource needs of scaling-up HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review for national policy makers and planners.
ABSTRACT Considerable effort has been made to estimate the global resource requirements of scaling-up HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) interventions. There are currently several medium- and long-term global estimates available. Comprehensive country specific estimates are now urgently needed to ensure the successful scaling-up of these services. This paper reviews evidence on the global resource requirements of scaling-up HIV/AIDS and TB interventions. The purpose of this review is to summarise and critically appraise the methods used in the global estimates and to identify remaining knowledge gaps, particularly those relevant to country level estimation. This review found that the estimates of global resource requirements provide sound methodological guidance for countries on the basic steps to follow. However, there are still many areas that require further development or evidence. These include the following. Firstly, the methods used to assess the capacity to scale up HIV/AIDS and TB services need to be further refined. In particular countries need simple methods to assess human resource capacity. Secondly, investments need to be made to improve country level data on the costs and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and TB services. In particular efforts should be focused on producing standardised unit costs for each intervention by country, which reflect the reality of domestic resource use. Thirdly, simple costing models, which appropriately integrate systems costs need to be developed for use at the country level. Finally, resources needs estimation needs to be embedded by countries in multi-sectoral expenditure planning processes. Countries and global agencies will continue to need estimates for different purposes at different times. Therefore attention should move away from specific estimates, to the longer term aim of building capacity at the country level, supported by global agencies. This will be of mutual benefit. Those making national resource estimates can learn from the experience of global estimation. Concurrently, global resource estimates can build on the evidence emerging from improved national resource estimates.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to explore the influence of traditional medicine and religion on discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in one of Africa's largest informal urban settlement, Kibera, in Nairobi, Kenya. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 20 patients discontinuing the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) ART program in Kibera due to issues related to traditional medicine and religion. Traditional medicine and religion remain important in many people's lives after ART initiation, but these issues are rarely addressed in a positive way during ART counseling. Many patients found traditional medicine and their religious beliefs to be in conflict with clinic treatment advice. Patients described a decisional process, prior to the actual drop-out from the ART program that involved a trigger event, usually a specific religious event, or a meeting with someone using traditional medicine that influenced them to take the decision to stop ART. Discontinuation of ART could be reduced if ART providers acknowledged and addressed the importance of religious issues and traditional medicine in the lives of patients, especially in similar resource-poor settings. Telling patients not to mix ART and traditional medicine appeared counter-productive in this setting. Introducing an open discussion around religious beliefs and the pros and cons of traditional medicine as part of standard counseling, may prevent drop-out from ART when side effects or opportunistic infections occur.AIDS Care 03/2011; 23(7):851-8. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2010.534432 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To estimate recurrent costs per patient and costs for a national HIV/AIDS treatment programme model in Rwanda. A national HIV/AIDS treatment programme model was developed. Unit costs were estimated so as to reflect necessary service consumption of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Two scenarios were calculated: (1) for patients/clients in the year 2006 and (2) for potential increases of patients/clients. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the robustness of results. Average yearly treatment costs were estimated to amount to 504 US$ per patient on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to 91 US$ for non-ART patients. Costs for the Rwandan HIV/AIDS treatment programme were estimated to lie between 20.9 and 27.1 million US$ depending on the scenario. ART required 9.6 to 11.1 million US$ or 41-46% of national programme costs. Treatment for opportunistic infections and other pathologies consumed 7.1 to 9.3 million US$ or 34% of total costs. Health Care in general and ART more specifically is unaffordable for the vast majority of Rwandan PLWHA. Adequate resources need to be provided not only for ART but also to assure treatment of opportunistic infections and other pathologies. While risk-pooling may play a limited role in the national response to HIV/AIDS, considering the general level of poverty of the Rwandan population, no appreciable alternative to continued donor funding exists for the foreseeable future.Tropical Medicine & International Health 09/2008; 13(10):1245-56. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02142.x · 2.30 Impact Factor