The analysis of onion and garlic. J Chromatogr A

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroalimentari, Ambientali e Microbiologiche, Università del Molise, Via F. De Sanctis, I-86100 Campobasso, Italy.
Journal of Chromatography A (Impact Factor: 4.17). 05/2006; 1112(1-2):3-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2005.12.016
Source: PubMed


Onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.), among the oldest cultivated plants, are used both as a food and for medicinal applications. In fact, these common food plants are a rich source of several phytonutrients recognized as important elements of the Mediterranean diet, but are also used in the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes type 2, hypertension, cataract and disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. colic pain, flatulent colic and dyspepsia). These activities are related to the thiosulfinates, volatile sulfur compounds, which are also responsible for the pungent of these vegetables. Besides these low-molecular weight compounds, onion and garlic are characterized by more polar compounds of phenolic and steroidal origin, often glycosilated, showing interesting pharmacological properties. These latter compounds, compared to the more studied thiosulfinates, present the advantages to be not pungent and more stable to cooking. Recently, there has been an increasing scientific attention on such compounds. In this paper, the literature about the major volatile and non-volatile phytoconstituents of onion and garlic has been reviewed. Particular attention was given to the different methodology developed to perform chemical analysis, including separation and structural elucidation.

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    • "Pyruvic acid is also produced as a byproduct and has been used to measure the pungency of onions (Randle & Bussard, 1993). The sulfur compounds in onions and garlic have been reported to reduce or prevent many chronic diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia (Lanzotti, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the antioxidant activity (AOA) of 15 short-day onions with white, yellow, or red colors and elucidated the relationships between pungency, anthocyanins, quercetin, and the AOA levels. There were substantial variations in both the pungency and total soluble solid content, which showed varying responses by bulb colors. The AOA in white or red onions tended to have low and high levels, respectively. However, there were many exceptions. The AOA levels assessed by the Folin–Ciocalteu (F–C) assay ranged between 440 and 785 μg/mL. The AOA levels based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay were between 19.1 and 79.8 μg/mL and displayed 10- to 20-fold differences. There was no correlation between the pungency and the AOA levels. The F–C assay showed no or low correlation with anthocyanin (r2 = 0.07) and quercetin (r2 = 0.59) contents, respectively. The DPPH assay showed correlations with anthocyanin (r2 = 0.65) and quercetin (r2 = 0.76) contents. Therefore, the onions with higher levels of anthocyanin and quercetin would have still higher AOA levels. Samples with alliinase action showed higher AOA levels than the samples without enzyme action. Onion juice without anthocyanin and flavonoids still contained considerable AOA levels. The methanol extract and fresh onion juices showed similar AOA levels by the F–C assay.
    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 09/2015; 63(1). DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.028 · 2.42 Impact Factor
    • "In addition, there is a need for preserving genetic resources in order to conserve both local landraces and crop-related culture (Negri et al., 2009; Veteläinen, Negri, & Maxted, 2009) within the framework of EU directives for agrobiodiversity. Onion is a vegetable crop of major importance for many countries in the world, with significant beneficial effect on human diet (Lanzotti, 2006). In Greece, it is particularly important since it is cultivated in 7.000 ha with a total production of 249.600 tn and average yield of 39.31 tn ha À1 ( "
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    ABSTRACT: "Vatikiotiko" is an onion local landrace from Greece with special quality features, such as strong and pungent taste and storability. In this study, we tried for the first time to describe this landrace and record its morphological traits and nutritional value in comparison with commercially cultivated genotypes ("Creamgold", "Red Cross F1" and "Sivan F1"). Nutritional value of "Vatikiotiko" was higher than commercial genotypes, whereas total sugars, fructose and glucose content were lower in "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" onions. Fatty acids composed mostly from polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acid), whereas for "Vatikiotiko" saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were detected in equal amounts (29.79% and 30.60%, respectively). "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" had low antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity), especially when comparing with "Sivan F1" and "Red Cross F1", whereas no flavonoids were detected in "Vatikiotiko". The overview of "Vatikiotiko" landrace supported its special character regarding its nutritional value (sugar content, mineral composition and fatty acids profile) and the necessity to revalorize and protect its traditional culture. The potential of introducing it as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) product has also been discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Food Chemistry 09/2015; 182. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.002 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    • "Onion bulbs are commonly used in human diet across the world (Golovchenko et al., 2012). In addition to its value as a food crop, it also has medicinal importance (Virginia, 2006; Jenwitheesuk et al., 2012). Onion is susceptible to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Basal rot of onion (Allium cepa L.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae is a common soil-borne disease that causes significant yield losses. Generally, synthetic fungicides are used to combat the menace which causes environmental pollution. The present study was carried out to assess the antifungal activity of Withania somnifera (L.), Dunal, a Solanaceous medicinal plant, against the pathogen of this disease. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations (from 0.5 to 4%) of methanolic extract of root stem and fruit of the test plant species were prepared and their bioactivity was assessed against the target fungal pathogen. Methanolic extract of root was further fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. A range of concentrations of these extracts viz. 200, 100… 3.125 mg mL-1 were prepared and assessed for their antifungal activities. Results: Methanolic root extract exhibited the best antifungal activity, causing up to 93% decrease in biomass of the fungal pathogen. n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of methanolic root extract exhibited pronounced antifungal activity resulting in 46–79%, 40–73% and 35–76% reduction in fungal biomass respectively. Conclusion: The present study concludes that root extract of W. somnifera possesses potent antifungal constituents which can be used for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 08/2015; 12(5):22-27. DOI:10.4314/ajtcam.v12i5.4 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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