The analysis of onion and garlic. J Chromatogr A

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroalimentari, Ambientali e Microbiologiche, Università del Molise, Via F. De Sanctis, I-86100 Campobasso, Italy.
Journal of Chromatography A (Impact Factor: 4.17). 05/2006; 1112(1-2):3-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2005.12.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.), among the oldest cultivated plants, are used both as a food and for medicinal applications. In fact, these common food plants are a rich source of several phytonutrients recognized as important elements of the Mediterranean diet, but are also used in the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes type 2, hypertension, cataract and disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. colic pain, flatulent colic and dyspepsia). These activities are related to the thiosulfinates, volatile sulfur compounds, which are also responsible for the pungent of these vegetables. Besides these low-molecular weight compounds, onion and garlic are characterized by more polar compounds of phenolic and steroidal origin, often glycosilated, showing interesting pharmacological properties. These latter compounds, compared to the more studied thiosulfinates, present the advantages to be not pungent and more stable to cooking. Recently, there has been an increasing scientific attention on such compounds. In this paper, the literature about the major volatile and non-volatile phytoconstituents of onion and garlic has been reviewed. Particular attention was given to the different methodology developed to perform chemical analysis, including separation and structural elucidation.

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    • "In addition, there is a need for preserving genetic resources in order to conserve both local landraces and crop-related culture (Negri et al., 2009; Veteläinen, Negri, & Maxted, 2009) within the framework of EU directives for agrobiodiversity. Onion is a vegetable crop of major importance for many countries in the world, with significant beneficial effect on human diet (Lanzotti, 2006). In Greece, it is particularly important since it is cultivated in 7.000 ha with a total production of 249.600 tn and average yield of 39.31 tn ha "
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    ABSTRACT: "Vatikiotiko" is an onion local landrace from Greece with special quality features, such as strong and pungent taste and storability. In this study, we tried for the first time to describe this landrace and record its morphological traits and nutritional value in comparison with commercially cultivated genotypes ("Creamgold", "Red Cross F1" and "Sivan F1"). Nutritional value of "Vatikiotiko" was higher than commercial genotypes, whereas total sugars, fructose and glucose content were lower in "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" onions. Fatty acids composed mostly from polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and α-linolenic acid), whereas for "Vatikiotiko" saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were detected in equal amounts (29.79% and 30.60%, respectively). "Vatikiotiko" and "Creamgold" had low antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity), especially when comparing with "Sivan F1" and "Red Cross F1", whereas no flavonoids were detected in "Vatikiotiko". The overview of "Vatikiotiko" landrace supported its special character regarding its nutritional value (sugar content, mineral composition and fatty acids profile) and the necessity to revalorize and protect its traditional culture. The potential of introducing it as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) product has also been discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Food Chemistry 09/2015; 182. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.002 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    • "Onion bulbs are commonly used in human diet across the world (Golovchenko et al., 2012). In addition to its value as a food crop, it also has medicinal importance (Virginia, 2006; Jenwitheesuk et al., 2012). Onion is susceptible to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Basal rot of onion (Allium cepa L.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae is a common soil-borne disease that causes significant yield losses. Generally, synthetic fungicides are used to combat the menace which causes environmental pollution. The present study was carried out to assess the antifungal activity of Withania somnifera (L.), Dunal, a Solanaceous medicinal plant, against the pathogen of this disease. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations (from 0.5 to 4%) of methanolic extract of root stem and fruit of the test plant species were prepared and their bioactivity was assessed against the target fungal pathogen. Methanolic extract of root was further fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. A range of concentrations of these extracts viz. 200, 100… 3.125 mg mL-1 were prepared and assessed for their antifungal activities. Results: Methanolic root extract exhibited the best antifungal activity, causing up to 93% decrease in biomass of the fungal pathogen. n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of methanolic root extract exhibited pronounced antifungal activity resulting in 46–79%, 40–73% and 35–76% reduction in fungal biomass respectively. Conclusion: The present study concludes that root extract of W. somnifera possesses potent antifungal constituents which can be used for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 08/2015; 12(5):22-27. DOI:10.4314/ajtcam.v12i5.4 · 0.56 Impact Factor
    • "The combination of hydropriming with plant extracts like aqueous leaf extracts of Moringa and Sorghum are known for enhancing emergence, seedling vigour and overcoming drought stress in black-gram, paddy, maize and sorghum (Foid et al. 2001; Basra et al. 2011; Kahliq et al. 2013). Seed treatments with antifungal plant extracts are also known to reduce the seed borne contamination of fungi in seed samples and improve seed quality parameters (Lanzotti 2006; Satish et al. 2007; Mancini & Romanazi 2013). In the present study, the possible utilization of plant extracts in combination with hydropriming is evaluated for its efficacy to suppress seed-borne mycotoxigenic fungal incidence and their subsequent effect on early plant growth in maize. "
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    ABSTRACT: Seed-borne fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus are capable of causing several diseases to maize (Zea mays L.) and produce mycotoxins, which can have adverse effects on animal health and productivity. In the present study, efficacy of 100 extracts of 20 different plant species were tested for their antimicrobial potential against toxigenic Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus. Among these, extracts of Toddalia asiatica, Decalepis hamiltonii, Vitex negundo and Psoralea corylifolia reduced A. flavus and F. verticillioides incidence significantly. Hydropriming with T. asiatica plant extract increased seed germination and seedling vigour significantly; however, D. hamiltonii and V. negundo did not show any improvements in seed quality parameters tested. In turn, P. corylifolia treated seeds showed potent antimicrobial potential but reduced seed germination and seedling vigour. The present study revealed that hydropriming of maize seeds with some plant extracts can be a potent alternative strategy to control seed-borne toxigenic fungi and to increase the seed quality parameters in maize.
    International Journal of Pest Management 04/2015; 61(2). DOI:10.1080/09670874.2015.1025116 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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