Article

Occurrence of arsenic in ground water in the Choushui River alluvial fan, Taiwan

National Chung Cheng University, Chia-i-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
Journal of Environmental Quality (Impact Factor: 2.35). 01/2006; 35(1):68-75. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2005.0129
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An investigation of shallow ground water quality revealed that high arsenic (As) concentrations were found in both aquifers and aquitards in the southern Choushui River alluvial fan of Taiwan. A total of 655 geological core samples from 13 drilling wells were collected and analyzed. High As contents were found primarily in aquitards, to a maximum of 590 mg/kg. The contents were correlated with the locations of the marine sequences. Additionally, strong correlations among the As concentrations of core samples, the clay, and the geological age of the Holocene transgression were identified. Most of the As in ground water originated from the aquitard of the marine sequence. The high As content in marine formations with high clay contents may be attributable to the bioaccumulation of As in the sea organisms, which accrued and were deposited in the formation. A preliminary geogenic model of the origin of the high As concentration in the shallow sedimentary basin of the Choushui River alluvial fan of Taiwan is proposed.

0 Followers
 · 
104 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Blackfoot disease (BFD) had occurred seriously in the Yichu, Hsuehchia, Putai, and Peimen townships of Chia-Nan District of Taiwan in the early days. These four townships are the districts of fishpond cultivation domestically in Taiwan. Groundwater becomes the main water supply because of short income in surface water. The problems of over pumping in groundwater may not only result in land subsidence and seawater intrusion but also be harmful to the health of human giving rise to the bioaccumulation via food chain in groundwater with arsenic (As). This research uses sequential indicator simulation (SIS) to characterize the spatial arsenic distribution in groundwater in the four townships. Risk assessment is applied to explore the dilution ratio (DR) of groundwater utilization, which is defined as the ratio showing the volume of groundwater utilization compared to pond water, for fish farming in the range of target cancer risk (TR) especially on the magnitude of 10(-4)∼10(-6). Our study results reveal that the 50th percentile of groundwater DRs served as a regulation standard can be used to perform fish farm groundwater management for a TR of 10(-6). For a TR of 5 × 10(-6), we suggest using the 75th percentile of DR for groundwater management. For a TR of 10(-5), we suggest using the 95th percentile of the DR standard for performing groundwater management in fish farm areas. For the TR of exceeding 5 × 10(-5), we do not suggest establishing groundwater management standards under these risk standards. Based on the research results, we suggest that establishing a TR at 10(-5) and using the 95th percentile of DR are best for groundwater management in fish farm areas.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 05/2014; 186(9). DOI:10.1007/s10661-014-3818-2 · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arsenic (As) is an odorless semi-metal that occurs naturally in rock and soil, and As contamination in groundwater resources has become a serious threat to human health. Thus, assessing the spatial and temporal variability of As concentration is highly desirable, particularly in heavily As-contaminated areas. However, various difficulties may be encountered in the regional estimation of As concentration such as cost-intensive field monitoring, scarcity of field data, identification of important factors affecting As, over-fitting or poor estimation accuracy. This study develops a novel systematical dynamic-neural modeling (SDM) for effectively estimating regional As-contaminated water quality by using easily-measured water quality variables. To tackle the difficulties commonly encountered in regional estimation, the SDM comprises of a neural network and four statistical techniques: the Nonlinear Autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network, Gamma test, cross-validation, Bayesian regularization method and indicator kriging (IK). For practical application, this study investigated a heavily As-contaminated area in Taiwan. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) is adopted for comparison purpose. The results demonstrate that the NARX network (Root mean square error (RMSE): 95.11 mu g l(-1) for training; 106.13 mu g l(-1) for validation) outperforms the BPNN (RMSE: 121.54 mu g l(-1) for training; 143.37 mu g l(-1) for validation). The constructed SDM can provide reliable estimation (R-2 > 0.89) of As concentration at ungauged sites based merely on three easily-measured water quality variables (Alk, Ca2+ and pH). In addition, risk maps under the threshold of the WHO drinking water standard (10 mu g l(-1)) are derived by the IK to visually display the spatial and temporal variation of the As concentration in the whole study area at different time spans. The proposed SDM can be practically applied with satisfaction to the regional estimation in study areas of interest and the estimation of missing, hazardous or costly data to facilitate water resources management.
    Journal of Hydrology 08/2013; 499:265-274. DOI:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.07.008 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic compound that exists naturally in many sources such as soil, groundwater, and food; in which vast majority forms are arsenite (As(3+)) or arsenate (As(5+)). The mechanism of arsenic detoxification in humans still remains obscured. Epidemiologic studies documented that arsenic pollution caused black foot disease, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, hypotension, cardiomyopathy), bladder cancer and skin cancer in many countries in which Taiwan is considered as high arsenic exposure country for long time ago. However, the effects of arsenic to cardiac functions still lacked of investigation while some studies mainly focus on inflammatory and cancer mechanisms. In the present study, we found cardiac hypertrophy signaling may be the most significant pathway for up regulated genes in arsenic exposed patients via bioinformatics approach. To verify our bioinformatics prediction, arsenic was fed orally to rats at different concentration based on previous studies in Taiwan. Using hemodynamic method as the main tool to measure the changes in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and left ventricular contractility index, the findings suggest that highly exposure to arsenic lead to hypertension; elevated left ventricular diastolic pressure and alteration in cardiac contractility which are supposed to be the interaction between arsenic and cardiac nerves activity via the changing in calcium homeostasis. Collectively, based on our real-time PCR and western blot data strongly suggest that calcium homeostasis may also go through MEF2A, TNNI3, CAMKK2, CALM3 and cardiac hypertrophy relative signaling pathway.
    Toxicology 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2014.07.010 · 3.75 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
118 Downloads
Available from
Jun 2, 2014