Premenstrual symptoms and perimenopausal depression
ABSTRACT The role of ovarian steroids in both premenstrual dysphoria and perimenopausal depression has led to the suggestion that these conditions represent expressions of the same underlying disorder. Premenstrual mood symptoms were evaluated in women with perimenopause-related depression.
Self-reports and daily symptom ratings during one menstrual cycle were examined in 70 depressed perimenopausal women attending a menopause clinic and 35 nondepressed perimenopausal women.
Twenty-six percent of the depressed and 9% of the nondepressed women reported premenstrual symptoms. Thirty-one percent of the depressed and 20% of the nondepressed women met criteria for significant menses-related symptom cyclicity (at least a 30% increase in the average ratings of at least two of four measured negative mood symptoms in the premenstrual versus the postmenstrual week); 5 of these depressed women and none of the comparison subjects described premenstrual symptoms on self-reports. Finally, 21% of the depressed and 3% of the nondepressed women met criteria for premenstrual dysphoria (symptom cyclicity and at least moderate severity, with symptoms exceeding a minimum luteal symptom severity threshold of 2.5).
A higher-than-expected rate of menses-related symptom cyclicity and premenstrual dysphoria was observed in perimenopausal depressed women. However, neither menses-related symptom cyclicity nor premenstrual dysphoria was an invariant accompaniment of perimenopausal depression. Additionally, the rate of premenstrual dysphoria was not predicted by initial self-reports.
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ABSTRACT: This review aimed to examine evidence for the role of hormonal changes in the onset and course of depressive symptomatology and to assess the possible future role of hormonal therapies in the treatment of depression. A Medline and PsycINFO search of the literature published between 1965 and 2006 was made of studies of depressive symptoms and hormonal treatment in women at all stages of reproductive life. The cyclic fluctuation of gonadal steroids at menarche coincides with the beginning of gender-based differences in depression rates, which continue throughout reproductive life until menopause. Modifications in hormonal status, whether related to endogenous or exogenous exposure or to hormone deprivation, appear to be associated with affective disorder in a subgroup of women. For these women, a growing body of evidence indicates a biological pattern of vulnerability to mood disorders in response to hormonal fluctuations. This could have three major implications: that women vary in vulnerability to mood disorder when abrupt change in steroid levels occur, that these effects could be cumulative across the female life span, and that women do not arrive at menopause with equal risk of mood disorders or equal susceptibility to the effects of hormonal replacement therapy as has been assumed by current clinical research and practice. While hormonal therapies could have positive effects in the treatment and prevention of depressive disorders, further research is required to differentiate hormone-responsive subgroups of women for whom specific hormonal treatments may be most beneficial. To this end, we suggest that a multifactorial model of cumulative vulnerability, which takes into account hormonal exposure throughout life, genetic vulnerability, and environmental factors, may provide better prediction of treatment response.Journal of Psychosomatic Research 05/2007; 62(4):473-85. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.12.019 · 2.84 Impact Factor
- European Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2006; 16. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(06)70354-6 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper examines the factors associated with depressive symptoms during the perimenopausal transition, to increase the understanding about the etiology of perimenopausal depression. Seventy-six peri- and early postmenopausal women with or without current depressive symptoms were recruited (mean, 49.5 years; standard deviation, 4.3). Participants completed a series of questionnaires relating to depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), perimenopausal symptoms (Greene Climacteric Scale), social support, life events, history of mood disorders, exercise regime, and questions regarding lifestyle and well-being. Univariate relationships between predictors and depression scores were assessed. All significant variables at this level (history of depression, history of premenstrual syndrome, recent negative life events, aerobic exercise, social support, and somatic symptoms) were then analyzed via multiple regression. The presence of recent negative life events, a history of depression, and severity of somatic symptoms of perimenopause were all found to predict unique variance in depression scores. There was also a trend toward a protective role of aerobic exercise. This study confirmed the role of negative life events, previous depression history, and somatic complaints in the development of depressive symptoms during perimenopause. Further exploration of this relationship is warranted.Women s Health Issues 09/2013; 23(5):e301-e307. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2013.07.001 · 1.61 Impact Factor