Premenstrual symptoms and perimenopausal depression
ABSTRACT The role of ovarian steroids in both premenstrual dysphoria and perimenopausal depression has led to the suggestion that these conditions represent expressions of the same underlying disorder. Premenstrual mood symptoms were evaluated in women with perimenopause-related depression.
Self-reports and daily symptom ratings during one menstrual cycle were examined in 70 depressed perimenopausal women attending a menopause clinic and 35 nondepressed perimenopausal women.
Twenty-six percent of the depressed and 9% of the nondepressed women reported premenstrual symptoms. Thirty-one percent of the depressed and 20% of the nondepressed women met criteria for significant menses-related symptom cyclicity (at least a 30% increase in the average ratings of at least two of four measured negative mood symptoms in the premenstrual versus the postmenstrual week); 5 of these depressed women and none of the comparison subjects described premenstrual symptoms on self-reports. Finally, 21% of the depressed and 3% of the nondepressed women met criteria for premenstrual dysphoria (symptom cyclicity and at least moderate severity, with symptoms exceeding a minimum luteal symptom severity threshold of 2.5).
A higher-than-expected rate of menses-related symptom cyclicity and premenstrual dysphoria was observed in perimenopausal depressed women. However, neither menses-related symptom cyclicity nor premenstrual dysphoria was an invariant accompaniment of perimenopausal depression. Additionally, the rate of premenstrual dysphoria was not predicted by initial self-reports.
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ABSTRACT: This paper examines the factors associated with depressive symptoms during the perimenopausal transition, to increase the understanding about the etiology of perimenopausal depression. Seventy-six peri- and early postmenopausal women with or without current depressive symptoms were recruited (mean, 49.5 years; standard deviation, 4.3). Participants completed a series of questionnaires relating to depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), perimenopausal symptoms (Greene Climacteric Scale), social support, life events, history of mood disorders, exercise regime, and questions regarding lifestyle and well-being. Univariate relationships between predictors and depression scores were assessed. All significant variables at this level (history of depression, history of premenstrual syndrome, recent negative life events, aerobic exercise, social support, and somatic symptoms) were then analyzed via multiple regression. The presence of recent negative life events, a history of depression, and severity of somatic symptoms of perimenopause were all found to predict unique variance in depression scores. There was also a trend toward a protective role of aerobic exercise. This study confirmed the role of negative life events, previous depression history, and somatic complaints in the development of depressive symptoms during perimenopause. Further exploration of this relationship is warranted.Women s Health Issues 09/2013; 23(5):e301-e307. DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2013.07.001 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Perimenopause is the interval of irregular menstrual activity which directly precedes menopause, it is also called “menopausal transition”. It is characterized by biological and psychosocial changes. A spectrum of symptoms is present during perimenopause including vasomotor symptoms, loss of bone density, sexual dysfunction, a decline in cognitive function and psychiatric symptoms. The role of gonadal hormones in these symptoms is well documented in animal and human research. Objective: To review the literature focusing on perimenopause and gonadal hormones. Methods: Search of PubMed, Medscape, and Ovid databases using the key words perimenopause, menopause, depression and gonadal hormones.06/2008; 37(2):236-249.
Revista colombiana de obstetricia y ginecología 03/2006; 57(1):19-26.