Article

Toward a Comprehensive Developmental Model for Major Depression in Men

Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.56). 02/2006; 163(1):115-24. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.115
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The multiple risk factors for major depression are interrelated through poorly understood developmental pathways. In 2002, the authors presented a developmental model for major depression in women. Based on similar methods, they here present an analogous model for men.
Using data from 2,935 adult male twins, interviewed twice over a 2-4-year period, the authors constructed, by means of structural equation modeling, an integrated etiologic model for major depression that predicts depressive episodes over 1 year from 18 risk factors conceptualized as five developmental "tiers" reflecting childhood, early adolescence, late adolescence, adulthood, and the last year.
The best-fitting model, including six correlations and 76 paths, provided a good fit to the data, explaining 49% of the variance in the liability to depressive episodes. The overall results, similar to those seen in women, suggest that the development of major depression results from the action and interaction of three broad pathways of internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and adversity. Childhood parental loss and low self-esteem were more potent variables in the model in men than in women. Genetic risks for major depression had a broader spectrum of action in men than in women. The pathway to major depression through externalizing symptoms was not more prominent in men than in women.
Major depression in men, as in women, is an etiologically complex disorder influenced by risk factors from multiple domains that act in developmental time. The similarities in etiologic pathways to major depression for men and women outweigh the modest differences.

0 Followers
 · 
118 Views
  • Source
    • "This design was used to increase variability on the constructs of interest; however, the results may be limited in their generalizability. This study examined the differential effect of independent and dependent events on stress response based on the importance of this distinction in prior research (e.g., Kendler et al., 2006). Other categories of stressors merit consideration, including but not limited to, interpersonal and achievement stressors, which have been shown to be associated with depressive outcomes (e.g., Eberhart & Hammen, 2010; Carter & Garber, 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 03/2014; 70(3):209-223. DOI:10.1002/jclp.22011 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "If a similar family support scale was chosen as a test of concurrent validity of the CFSS, the strength of the correlation may be stronger. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between family support and depression [32-34]. A 23- year follow up study found that higher family support was associated with less depression and it predicted a steeper trajectory of recovery from depression [35]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite strong recommendations to involve family social support in hypertension control, few questionnaires have been designed to measure family support in Chinese patients. The Chinese Family Support Scale is a self-rated questionnaire that assesses family support over a 6-month period. A total of 282 patients with hypertension participated in this study and 136 of them completed the questionnaire twice within an interval of two to three weeks. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to assess the structural validity of the scale. Concurrent validity was determined by measuring the correlation between the Chinese Family Support Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale using the Sperman's Correlation Coefficient. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients were employed to evaluate the internal and test-retest reliability of the scale. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor solution accounting for 62% of the total variance. The three underlying sub-scale dimensions were kinship, nuclear family, and social resources. Significant correlation (r=-0.266; p<0.01) was found between the depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the extent of support perceived by the patients as measured by the Chinese Family Support Scale. The Chinese Family Support Scale had an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82). The study provides preliminary evidence that the12-item Chinese Family Support Scale is acceptable, valid and reliable for measuring the perceived family support in hypertension patients. It is a promising tool which can be easily incorporated into epidemiological surveys.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e85682. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085682 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In accord with prior research (Kendler et al., 2006) stressful life events were classified as " dependent " on the proband's behavior when the respondent was likely to play an active role on it, such as serious problems with a neighbor; whereas " independent " stressful life events where those which the respondent was unlikely to have caused it such as a death of a family member. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic major depressive disorder (CMDD) is highly prevalent and associated with high personal and societal cost. Identifying risk factors for persistence and remission of CMDD may help in developing more effective treatment and prevention interventions. Prospective cohort study of individuals participating in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave 1; n=43,093) and its 3-year follow-up (Wave 2; n=34,653) who met a diagnosis of CMDD at the Wave 1 assessment. Among the 504 respondents who met criteria for present CMDD at Wave 1, only 63 (11.52%) of them continued to meet criteria of CMDD. A history of childhood sexual abuse, earlier onset of MDD, presence of comorbidity and a history of treatment-seeking for depression predicted persistence of CMDD three years after the baseline evaluation. Our sample is limited to adults, our follow-up period was only three-years and the diagnosis of CMDD at baseline was retrospective. CMDD shows high rates of remission within three years of baseline assessment, although some specific risk factors predict a persistent course. Given the high personal and societal cost associated with CMDD, there is a need to develop and disseminate effective interventions for CMDD.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2013; 151(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.013 · 3.71 Impact Factor
Show more

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from