Therapy Insight: adipocytokines in metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular disease.
ABSTRACT Abdominal fat accumulation has been shown to play crucial roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. Visceral fat accumulation particularly is closely correlated to the development of cardiovascular disease and obesity-related disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Given these clinical findings, the functions of adipocytes have been intensively investigated in the past 10 years, and have been revealed to act as endocrine cells that secrete various bioactive substances termed adipocytokines. Among adipocytokines, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor are produced in adipocytes as well as other organs, and contribute to the development of vascular diseases. Visfatin has been identified as a visceral-fat-specific protein that might be involved in the development of obesity-related diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In contrast to these adipocytokines, adiponectin, which is an adipose-tissue-specific, collagen-like protein, has been noted as an important antiatherogenic and antidiabetic protein, or as an anti-inflammatory protein. The functions of adipocytokine secretion might be regulated dynamically by nutritional state. Visceral fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipocyte functions, including oversecretion of tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, and hyposecretion of adiponectin, which results in the development of a variety of metabolic and circulatory diseases. In this review, the importance of adipocytokines, particularly adiponectin, is discussed with respect to cardiovascular diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to identify gene polymorphisms that confer susceptibility to obesity. A total of 5448 unrelated Japanese individuals from two independent populations were examined: subject panel A comprised 4252 individuals who visited participating hospitals; subject panel B comprised 1196 community-dwelling elderly individuals. The genotypes for 95 polymorphisms of 67 candidate genes were determined. The chi(2) test revealed that six polymorphisms were related (p<0.05) to the prevalence of obesity in subject panel A; after application of Bonferroni's correction, however, only the 2677G --> A/T polymorphism (rs2032582) of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, member 1 gene (ABCB1) was significantly associated (p=0.0003) with obesity. Subsequent multivariable logistic regression analysis also revealed that the 2677G --> A/T polymorphism of ABCB1 was significantly associated with obesity. For validation of this association, the 2677G --> A/T polymorphism of ABCB1 was examined in subject panel B and again found to be significantly associated with obesity. Body mass index was significantly (p=0.01) greater for individuals with the variant T allele of this polymorphism than for those with the GG genotype in the combined subject panels A and B. Our results suggest that the ABCB1 genotype may prove informative for assessment of genetic risk for obesity in Japanese individuals.Genomics 07/2008; 91(6):512-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.03.004 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence and prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. National recommendations for screening and diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia provide a basis for early detection, treatment, and intervention that may potentially decrease related complications, and personal and economic costs of the disease. Most important is that knowledge exists about who is at risk for diabetes by weight, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, and history of gestational diabetes that allows for the development and implementation of diabetes primary prevention programs. Multiple national health care providers, systems of care, and communities that can be used to guide such prevention, early screening, and disease detection and intervention programs aimed at decreasing the burden of diabetes.Nursing Clinics of North America 01/2007; 41(4):487-98, v. DOI:10.1016/j.cnur.2006.07.008 · 0.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIM: The study of dietary patterns offers a comprehensive, real-life approach towards examining the complex diet and disease relationship. The simultaneous association of dietary patterns with inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been extensively reviewed. This report reviews the association of dietary patterns with inflammation in the context of the MetS. METHODS: Original English-language research studies with humans were identified via MEDLINE, using inflammation, MetS, whole diets and dietary patterns as keywords. The findings were carefully examined and synthesized along consistent axes. RESULTS: Many observational and a few prospective studies, as well as some randomized controlled trials (RCTs), support an inverse association between a Mediterranean dietary pattern and markers of inflammation. The link is generally independent of traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and weight loss. The few studies that have examined the association between following a healthy dietary pattern, evaluated using various diet quality scores, and inflammation report an inverse association; however, this association was attenuated upon adjusting for CVD risk factors. A Mediterranean dietary pattern has also been associated with a reduced risk of the MetS in several cross-sectional studies and a few prospective studies conducted with healthy people. Few RCTs (lasting 1-2years) have confirmed the benefits of following a Mediterranean diet on MetS risk in obese individuals, in those with the MetS or in those at CVD risk. The evidence, albeit limited, for a link between healthy diets based on other diet quality scores and the MetS supports a similar inverse association for the primary and secondary prevention of the MetS. CONCLUSION: Adhering to healthy diets such as the Mediterranean diet and/or national dietary guidelines can reduce inflammation and the MetS.Diabetes & Metabolism 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.diabet.2012.08.007 · 2.85 Impact Factor