Constraints and Triggers: Situational Mechanics of Gender in Negotiation

John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.08). 01/2006; 89(6):951-65. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.89.6.951
Source: PubMed


The authors propose 2 categories of situational moderators of gender in negotiation: situational ambiguity and gender triggers. Reducing the degree of situational ambiguity constrains the influence of gender on negotiation. Gender triggers prompt divergent behavioral responses as a function of gender. Field and lab studies (1 and 2) demonstrated that decreased ambiguity in the economic structure of a negotiation (structural ambiguity) reduces gender effects on negotiation performance. Study 3 showed that representation role (negotiating for self or other) functions as a gender trigger by producing a greater effect on female than male negotiation performance. Study 4 showed that decreased structural ambiguity constrains gender effects of representation role, suggesting that situational ambiguity and gender triggers work in interaction to moderate gender effects on negotiation performance.

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    • "Unfortunately, many negotiations in and out of the classroom never happen because the parties fail to recognize a negotiable moment or to ask for what they want due to fear of confrontation/conflict (Bowles et al., 2005; Small, Gelfand, Babcock, & Gettman, 2007; Volkema & Fleck, 2012). As a consequence , one if not all participants can fail to achieve their preferred outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Negotiation is an interpersonal process common to everyday personal and professional success. Yet individuals often fail to recognize opportunities for initiating negotiations and the immediate and long-term implications of these oversights for themselves and others. This article describes a simple yet rich negotiation exercise that learners can undertake outside the classroom in a familiar and highly accessible setting, an exercise that offers insights into and reinforcement of principles and theories from the individual (e.g., perception, personality, motivation), interpersonal/group (e.g., communication media, group dynamics, power), and organizational/ environmental (e.g., design/structure, ethics) dimensions of organizational behavior and management. The application of these and other lessons to negotiations across organizational levels are offered, along with specific observations from learners of the parallels to asking one's boss for a raise.
    Journal of Management Education 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1052562915600202
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    • "The findings indicate that, first, even in the country which is more influenced by traditional gender roles, differences by gender in accommodating behavior of WRs do not emerge, and second, that female WRs perceive less social support than male in an industrial relations context with more tradition on gender roles. This work contributes to a growing body of research demonstrating the importance of situational moderators in understanding gender and negotiation, such as the representation role (Amanatullah and Morris 2010; Bear 2011; Bowles et al. 2005; Kray et al. 2001; Small et al. 2007). Further, this study augments upon previous research by identifying the moderator effect of the industrial relations culture and gender in the relation between accommodating behavior and perceived social support in WRs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, the role of worker representatives (WRs) is traditionally perceived as masculine. With an increasing participation of women in the workforce, the number of female WRs grows all over Europe. WRs’ main task is to negotiate on behalf of the constituency. We explore how male and female WRs perceive support from their constituency and how this perceived support is related to their negotiation behavior. We test hypotheses about the impact of gender and societal culture on perceived support and accommodating behavior in negotiations. The hypotheses are tested using a quantitative approach among 219 female and 495 male WRs in Spain and 166 female and 398 male WRs in the Netherlands. Following the research question there was no evidence indicating gender differences in accommodating behavior. Results show that a) WRs accommodate less to management in Spain than in the Netherlands; b) female WRs perceive less social support than their male counterparts in Spain, but not in the Netherlands; c) social support is negatively related to accommodating behavior only for female WRs in Spain, but not in the Netherlands. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
    Sex Roles 07/2014; 70(11-12). DOI:10.1007/s11199-014-0378-4 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    • "outcomes (e.g., salaries). Subsequently, researchers began to focus on a broader array of issues and factors related to initiation behavior, including the negotiator's role definition (Bowles, Babcock, & McGinn, 2005), the negotiation topic (Bear, 2011), anticipated outcomes (Kong, Tuncel, & Parks, 2011), power imbalance (Magee et al., 2007; Small, Gelfand, Babcock, & Gettman, 2007), and culture (Sharma et al., 2010; Volkema & Fleck, 2012). Although these studies have made important contributions to the study of initiation behavior, they have often viewed the initiation process as a singular act. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports on a study of the effects of recognition of negotiable opportunities (ability) and self-efficacy (motivation) on initiation behavior in negotiations, an often overlooked stage of the negotiation process. Three phases of the initiation process are examined—engaging, requesting, and optimizing—through three negotiation scenarios offering corresponding forced-choice behavioral options. Results suggest that, overall, the recognition of negotiable opportunities and the interaction of recognition and self-efficacy best predict initiation intentionality. More specifically, recognition and the interaction of recognition and self-efficacy were significantly associated with the likelihood of making a request, whereas the interaction of recognition and self-efficacy was significantly associated with the likelihood of optimizing that request. The implications of these findings for practitioners and future research are discussed.
    Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 02/2013; 6(1):32-48. DOI:10.1111/ncmr.12002 · 0.76 Impact Factor
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