PS2 mutation increases neuronal cell vulnerability to neurotoxicants through activation of caspase-3 by enhancing of ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release.

College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Korea.
The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.48). 02/2006; 20(1):151-3. DOI: 10.1096/fj.05-4017fje;1
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an universal second messenger that regulates the most important activities of all eukaryotic cells. It is of critical importance to neurons as it participates in the transmission of the depolarizing signal and contributes to synaptic activity. Neurons have thus developed extensive and intricate Ca(2+) signaling pathways to couple the Ca(2+) signal to their biochemical machinery. Ca(2+) influx into neurons occurs through plasma membrane receptors and voltage-dependent ion channels. The release of Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, by intracellular channels also contributes to the elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+). Inside the cell, Ca(2+) is controlled by the buffering action of cytosolic Ca(2+)-binding proteins and by its uptake and release by mitochondria. The uptake of Ca(2+) in the mitochondrial matrix stimulates the citric acid cycle, thus enhancing ATP production and the removal of Ca(2+) from the cytosol by the ATP-driven pumps in the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. A Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in the plasma membrane also participates in the control of neuronal Ca(2+). The impaired ability of neurons to maintain an adequate energy level may impact Ca(2+) signaling: this occurs during aging and in neurodegenerative disease processes. The focus of this review is on neuronal Ca(2+) signaling and its involvement in synaptic signaling processes, neuronal energy metabolism, and neurotransmission. The contribution of altered Ca(2+) signaling in the most important neurological disorders will then be considered.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 01/2014; 71(15). DOI:10.1007/s00018-013-1550-7 · 5.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Presenilin-1 (PS1) and presenilin-2 (PS2) are transmembrane proteins widely expressed in the central nervous system, which function as the catalytic subunits of γ-secretase, the enzyme that releases amyloid-β protein (Aβ) from ectodomain cleaved amyloid precursor protein (APP) by intramembrane proteolysis. Mutations in PS1, PS2, and Aβ protein precursor are involved in the etiology of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), while the cause of the sporadic form of AD (SAD) is still not known. However, since similar neuropathological changes have been observed in both FAD and SAD, a common pathway in the etiology of the disease has been suggested. Given that age-related deranged Ca(2+) regulation has been hypothesized to play a role in SAD pathogenesis via PS gene regulation and γ-secretase activity, we studied the in vitro regulation of PS1 and PS2 in the human neuron-like SK-N-BE cell line treated with the specific endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium ATPase inhibitor Thapsigargin (THG), to introduce intracellular Ca(2+) perturbations and mimic the altered Ca(2+) homeostasis observed in AD. Our results showed a consistent and significant down-regulation of PS2, while PS1 appeared to be unmodulated. These events were accompanied by oxidative stress and a number of morphological alterations suggestive of the induction of apoptotic machinery. The administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) did not revert the THG-induced effects reported, while treatment with the Ca(2+)-independent ER stressor Brefeldin A did not modulate basal PS1 and PS2 expression. Collectively, these results suggest that Ca(2+) fluctuation rather than ER stress and/or oxidative imbalance seems to play an essential role in PS2 regulation and confirm that, despite their strong homology, PS1 and PS2 could play different roles in AD.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 02/2014; 239(2):213-224. DOI:10.1177/1535370213514317 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perturbed Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis emerges as a central player in Alzheimer disease (AD). Accordingly, different studies have reported alterations of the expression and the function of Ryanodine Receptors (RyR) in human AD-affected brains, in cells expressing familial AD-linked mutations on the beta amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) and presenilins (the catalytic core in gamma-secretase complexes cleaving the betaAPP, thereby generating amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides), as well as in the brain of various transgenic AD mice models. Data converge to suggest that RyR expression and function alteration are associated to AD pathogenesis through the control of: i) betaAPP processing and Abeta peptide production, ii) neuronal death; iii) synaptic function; and iv) memory and learning abilities. In this review, we document the network of evidences suggesting that RyR could play a complex dual "compensatory/protective versus pathogenic" role contributing to the setting of histopathological lesions and synaptic deficits that are associated with the disease stages. We also discuss the possible mechanisms underlying RyR expression and function alterations in AD. Finally, we review recent publications showing that drug-targeting blockade of RyR and genetic manipulation of RyR reduces Abeta production, stabilizes synaptic transmission, and prevents learning and memory deficits in various AD mouse models. Chemically-designed RyR "modulators" could therefore be envisioned as new therapeutic compounds able to delay or block the progression of AD.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 06/2014; 9(1):21. DOI:10.1186/1750-1326-9-21 · 5.29 Impact Factor