PS2 mutation increases neuronal cell vulnerability to neurotoxicants through activation of caspase-3 by enhancing of ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release.

College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Korea.
The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.48). 02/2006; 20(1):151-3. DOI: 10.1096/fj.05-4017fje;1
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    ABSTRACT: Presenilin-1 (PS1) and presenilin-2 (PS2) are transmembrane proteins widely expressed in the central nervous system, which function as the catalytic subunits of γ-secretase, the enzyme that releases amyloid-β protein (Aβ) from ectodomain cleaved amyloid precursor protein (APP) by intramembrane proteolysis. Mutations in PS1, PS2, and Aβ protein precursor are involved in the etiology of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), while the cause of the sporadic form of AD (SAD) is still not known. However, since similar neuropathological changes have been observed in both FAD and SAD, a common pathway in the etiology of the disease has been suggested. Given that age-related deranged Ca(2+) regulation has been hypothesized to play a role in SAD pathogenesis via PS gene regulation and γ-secretase activity, we studied the in vitro regulation of PS1 and PS2 in the human neuron-like SK-N-BE cell line treated with the specific endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium ATPase inhibitor Thapsigargin (THG), to introduce intracellular Ca(2+) perturbations and mimic the altered Ca(2+) homeostasis observed in AD. Our results showed a consistent and significant down-regulation of PS2, while PS1 appeared to be unmodulated. These events were accompanied by oxidative stress and a number of morphological alterations suggestive of the induction of apoptotic machinery. The administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) did not revert the THG-induced effects reported, while treatment with the Ca(2+)-independent ER stressor Brefeldin A did not modulate basal PS1 and PS2 expression. Collectively, these results suggest that Ca(2+) fluctuation rather than ER stress and/or oxidative imbalance seems to play an essential role in PS2 regulation and confirm that, despite their strong homology, PS1 and PS2 could play different roles in AD.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 02/2014; 239(2):213-224. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an universal second messenger that regulates the most important activities of all eukaryotic cells. It is of critical importance to neurons as it participates in the transmission of the depolarizing signal and contributes to synaptic activity. Neurons have thus developed extensive and intricate Ca(2+) signaling pathways to couple the Ca(2+) signal to their biochemical machinery. Ca(2+) influx into neurons occurs through plasma membrane receptors and voltage-dependent ion channels. The release of Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, by intracellular channels also contributes to the elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+). Inside the cell, Ca(2+) is controlled by the buffering action of cytosolic Ca(2+)-binding proteins and by its uptake and release by mitochondria. The uptake of Ca(2+) in the mitochondrial matrix stimulates the citric acid cycle, thus enhancing ATP production and the removal of Ca(2+) from the cytosol by the ATP-driven pumps in the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. A Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in the plasma membrane also participates in the control of neuronal Ca(2+). The impaired ability of neurons to maintain an adequate energy level may impact Ca(2+) signaling: this occurs during aging and in neurodegenerative disease processes. The focus of this review is on neuronal Ca(2+) signaling and its involvement in synaptic signaling processes, neuronal energy metabolism, and neurotransmission. The contribution of altered Ca(2+) signaling in the most important neurological disorders will then be considered.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 01/2014; 71(15). · 5.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Presenilins (PS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane proteins, form the catalytic core of γ-secretase, an amyloid precursor protein processing enzyme. Mutations in PS lead to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by altering γ-secretase activity to generate pathologic amyloid beta and amyloid plaques in the brain. Here, we identified a novel mechanism where binding of the soluble, cytosolic N-terminal domain (NTF) of PS to intracellular Ca(2+) release channels, ryanodine receptors (RyR), controls Ca(2+) release from the ER. While PS1NTF decreased total RyR-mediated Ca(2+) release, PS2NTF had no effect at physiological Ca(2+) concentrations. This differential function and isotype-specificity is due to four cysteines absent in PS1NTF, present, however, in PS2NTF. Site-directed mutagenesis targeting these cysteines converted PS1NTF to PS2NTF function and vice versa, indicating differential RyR binding. This novel mechanism of intracellular Ca(2+) regulation through the PS-RyR interaction represents a novel target for AD drug development and the treatment of other neurodegenerative disorders that critically depend on ryanodine receptor and presenilin signaling.
    Experimental Neurology 09/2013; · 4.62 Impact Factor

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