"Promoter array" studies identify cohorts of genes directly regulated by methylation, copy number change, or transcription factor binding in human cancer cells.
ABSTRACT DNA microarrays of promoter sequences have been developed in order to identify the profile of genes bound and activated by DNA regulatory proteins such as the transcription factors c-Jun and ATF2 as well as DNA-modifying methylases. The arrays contain 3083 unique human promoter sequences from +500 to -1000 nts from the transcription start site. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage rapidly leads to specific activation of the Jun kinase pathway leading to increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and ATF2-DNA complexes at hundreds of sites within 3 hours. Using three statistical criteria, approximately 269 most commonly phosphorylated c-Jun/ATF2-DNA complexes were identified and representative cases were verified by qPCR measurement of ChIP-captured DNA. Expression was correlated at the mRNA and protein levels. The largest functional cohort was 24 genes of known DNA repair function, most of which exhibited increased protein expression indicated coordinate gene regulation. In addition, cell lines of prostate cancer exhibit stable methylation or copy number changes that reflect the alterations of the corresponding primary tumors. 504 (18.5%) promoters showed differential hybridization between immortalized control prostate epithelial and cancer cell lines. Among candidate hypermethylated genes in cancer-derived lines, eight had previously been observed in prostate cancer, and 13 were previously determined methylation targets in other cancers. The vast majority of genes that appear to be both differentially methylated and differentially regulated between prostate epithelial and cancer cell lines are novel methylation targets, including PAK6, RAD50, TLX3, PIR51, MAP2K5, INSR, FBN1, GG2-1, representing a rich new source of candidate genes to study the role of DNA methylation in prostate tumors. Earlier studies using prototype promoter arrays examine approximately 7% of the proximal regulatory sequences while the current gene regulatory events surveyed here occur on a large scale and may rapidly effect the coordinated expression of a large number of genes.
Article: Egr1 regulates the coordinated expression of numerous EGF receptor target genes as identified by ChIP-on-chip.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: UV irradiation activates the epidermal growth factor receptor, induces Egr1 expression and promotes apoptosis in a variety of cell types. We examined the hypothesis that Egr1 regulates genes that mediate this process by use of a chip-on-chip protocol in human tumorigenic prostate M12 cells. UV irradiation led to significant binding of 288 gene promoters by Egr1. A major functional subgroup consisted of apoptosis related genes. The largest subgroup of 24 genes belongs to the epidermal growth factor receptor-signal transduction pathway. Egr1 promoter binding had a significant impact on gene expression of target genes. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative real time PCR were used to validate promoter binding and expression changes. Small interfering RNA experiments were used to demonstrate the specific role of Egr1 in gene regulation. UV stimulation promotes growth arrest and apoptosis of M12 cells and our data clearly show that a downstream target of the epidermal growth factor receptor, namely Egr1, mediates this apoptotic response. Our study also identified numerous previously unknown targets of Egr1. These include FasL, MAX and RRAS2, which may play a role in the apoptotic response/growth arrest. Our results indicate that M12 cells undergo Egr1-dependent apoptotic response upon UV stimulation and led to the identification of downstream targets of Egr1, which mediate epidermal growth factor receptor function.Genome biology 12/2008; 9(11):R166. · 6.63 Impact Factor