Development of resistance to RNAi in mammalian cells.
ABSTRACT The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) in C. elegans and in plants has revolutionized current approaches to biology and medicine. RNAi silences genes in a sequence-specific manner through the actions of small pieces of double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs and miRNAs). RNAi has been found as a widespread natural phenomenon in eukaryotic cells and is also being used as a powerful experimental tool to explore gene function. Most importantly, it has many potential therapeutic applications. Viral gene-specific siRNAs are theoretically very promising antiviral inhibitors and have been examined in a broad range of medically important viruses. However, many RNA viruses escape RNAi-mediated suppression by counteracting the RNAi machinery through mutation of the targeted region, by encoding viral suppressors, or both. DNA viruses also counteract the RNAi machinery, preferentially using viral suppressors. Cellular factors may also contribute to RNAi resistance; ADAR1 was the first cellular factor found to be responsible for editing-mediated RNAi resistance. Because siRNAs can be used as potent small-molecule inhibitors of any cellular gene, the best way for a cell to maintain expression of essential genes for its long-term survival is to develop a program to resist the detrimental effects of RNAi.
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ABSTRACT: Adenovirus VA RNA1 is a small RNA polymerase III transcript that enhances mRNA translation both in transfected cells and during a lytic virus infection. Here we present evidence that VA RNA1 also, in length-dependent manner, increases cytoplasmic mRNA abundance in transient expression assays in 293 cells.Virology 03/1990; 174(2):613-7. · 3.35 Impact Factor
Article: Activation of the protein kinase PKR by short double-stranded RNAs with single-stranded tails.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The human RNA-activated protein kinase PKR is an interferon-induced protein that is part of the innate immune response and inhibits viral replication. The action of PKR involves RNA-dependent autophosphorylation leading to inhibition of translation. PKR has an N-terminal dsRNA-binding domain that can interact non-sequence specifically with long (>33 bp) stretches of dsRNA leading to activation. In addition, certain viral and cellular RNAs containing non-Watson-Crick structures and multiple, shorter dsRNA sections can regulate PKR. In an effort to identify novel binders and possible activators of PKR, we carried out selections on a partially structured dsRNA library using truncated and full-length versions of PKR. A library with 10(11) sequences was constructed and aptamers that bound to His6-tagged proteins were isolated. Characterization revealed a novel minimal RNA motif for activation of PKR with the following unified structural characteristics: a hairpin with a nonconserved imperfect 16-bp dsRNA stem flanked by 10-15-nt single-stranded tails, herein termed a "ss-dsRNA motif." Boundary experiments revealed that the single-stranded tails flanking the dsRNA core provide the critical determinant for activation. The ss-dsRNA motif occurs in a variety of cellular and viral RNAs, suggesting possible novel functions for PKR in nature.RNA 12/2004; 10(12):1934-45. · 5.09 Impact Factor