Respiratory failure remains the most common complication in the perioperative period after lung transplantation. Consequently it is important to develop an approach to diagnosis and the treatment of respiratory failure in this population. This review highlights the advances made in the understanding and treatment of lung transplant patients in the early postoperative phase. Owing to its relative importance, advances in the understanding and treatment of ischaemia-reperfusion injury are highlighted.
The causes of respiratory failure and the complications seen after transplantation are time dependent, with ischaemia-reperfusion, infection, technical problems and acute rejection being the most common in the early perioperative phase, and obliterative bronchiolitis, rejection, and infections secondary to bacteria, fungi, and viruses becoming more prevalent after 3 months. The advances in lung preservation and postoperative care may be overshadowed by an increase in the complexity of the recipients and the use of more marginal organs. An improved mechanistic understanding of ischaemia-reperfusion injury has translated into potential therapeutic targets. The development of prospective clinical trials, however, is hampered by a relatively small sample of patients and a significant degree of heterogeneity in the lung transplant population.
Many advances have been made in the understanding of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Owing to the acute and long-term implications of this complication, interventions that reduce the risk of developing ischaemia-reperfusion need to be evaluated in prospective clinical trials.
"Although there have been great advances in the clinical outcome of lung transplantation during the past years, primary graft dysfunction showing the clinical aspect of ALI/ARDS is still a significant problem in the early post-transplantation period limiting the success of the whole procedure . Therefore, synergistic approaches for optimization of graft preservation are needed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prophylactic exogenous surfactant therapy is a promising way to attenuate the ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury associated with lung transplantation and thereby to decrease the clinical occurrence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, there is little information on the mode by which exogenous surfactant attenuates I/R injury of the lung. We hypothesized that exogenous surfactant may act by limiting pulmonary edema formation and by enhancing alveolar type II cell and lamellar body preservation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exogenous surfactant therapy on the formation of pulmonary edema in different lung compartments and on the ultrastructure of the surfactant producing alveolar epithelial type II cells.
Rats were randomly assigned to a control, Celsior (CE) or Celsior + surfactant (CE+S) group (n = 5 each). In both Celsior groups, the lungs were flush-perfused with Celsior and subsequently exposed to 4 h of extracorporeal ischemia at 4 degrees C and 50 min of reperfusion at 37 degrees C. The CE+S group received an intratracheal bolus of a modified natural bovine surfactant at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight before flush perfusion. After reperfusion (Celsior groups) or immediately after sacrifice (Control), the lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion and processed for light and electron microscopy. Stereology was used to quantify edematous changes as well as alterations of the alveolar epithelial type II cells.
Surfactant treatment decreased the intraalveolar edema formation (mean (coefficient of variation): CE: 160 mm3 (0.61) vs. CE+S: 4 mm3 (0.75); p < 0.05) and the development of atelectases (CE: 342 mm3 (0.90) vs. CE+S: 0 mm3; p < 0.05) but led to a higher degree of peribronchovascular edema (CE: 89 mm3 (0.39) vs. CE+S: 268 mm3 (0.43); p < 0.05). Alveolar type II cells were similarly swollen in CE (423 microm3(0.10)) and CE+S (481 microm3(0.10)) compared with controls (323 microm3(0.07); p < 0.05 vs. CE and CE+S). The number of lamellar bodies was increased and the mean lamellar body volume was decreased in both CE groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05).
Intratracheal surfactant application before I/R significantly reduces the intraalveolar edema formation and development of atelectases but leads to an increased development of peribronchovascular edema. Morphological changes of alveolar type II cells due to I/R are not affected by surfactant treatment. The beneficial effects of exogenous surfactant therapy are related to the intraalveolar activity of the exogenous surfactant.
Respiratory research 02/2008; 9(1):5. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-9-5 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation provides the prospect of improved survival and quality of life for patients with end stage lung and pulmonary vascular diseases. Given the severity of illness of such patients at the time of surgery, lung transplant recipients require particular attention in the immediate post-operative period to ensure optimal short-term and long-term outcomes. The management of such patients involves active involvement of a multidisciplinary team versed in common post-operative complications. This review provides an overview of such complications as they pertain to the practitioners caring for post-operative lung transplant recipients. Causes and treatment of conditions affecting early morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients will be detailed, including primary graft dysfunction, cardiovascular and surgical complications, and immunologic and infectious issues. Additionally, lung donor management issues and bridging the critically ill potential lung transplant recipient to transplantation will be discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with significant coronary artery disease were once traditionally rejected as candidates for lung transplants because of higher risk of morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a man who received a left lung transplant and coronary revascularization without extracorporeal circulation in a combined surgical procedure after being diagnosed with significant coronary disease during the preoperative study for acceptance as a candidate for lung transplantation. We review the history of such combination procedures, which are changing clinicians' attitudes as to appropriate therapeutic approaches to take for complex patients. We also discuss the possible advantages of performing surgery without extracorporeal circulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a combined procedure that took place in a Spanish hospital.
Revista espanola de anestesiologia y reanimacion 57(7):425-30.
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