The metabolic syndrome: a global public health problem and a new definition.
ABSTRACT The constellation of metabolic abnormalities including centrally distributed obesity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, elevated blood pressure (BP), and hyperglycaemia is known as the metabolic syndrome. Associated with a 3 fold and 2 fold increase in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), respectively, it is thought to be a driver of the modern day epidemics of diabetes and CVD and has become a major public health challenge around the world. Since its initial description, several definitions of the syndrome have emerged. Each of these definitions used differing sets of criteria, which reflected contrasting views on pathogenic mechanisms and the need for clinical usefulness. The use of these definitions to conduct research into the metabolic syndrome in diverse populations resulted in wide ranging prevalence rates, inconsistencies and confusion, and spurred on the vigorous debate regarding how the metabolic syndrome should be defined. In response to this controversy, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has recently proposed a new definition, which is applicable to populations around the world. It is envisaged that the development of the new definition for the metabolic syndrome will help resolve the confusion caused by the number of earlier attempts to define this important entity.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity within countries varies by gender, age, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Identification of behavioural factors that are associated with obesity within the country's context is critical for the development of effective public health programs which aim to prevent and manage obesity. The objective of this study was to assess age and gender differentials in the prevalence of obesity in Lebanon and examine correlates of obesity with a focus on socioeconomic disparities. Following the WHO STEPwise guidelines, a national survey was conducted in Lebanon in 2008-2009. Households were selected randomly from all Governorates based on stratified cluster sampling method. One adult aged 20 years and over was randomly selected from each household for the interview. Anthropometric measurements and 24 hour recall dietary intake were obtained. The final sample included 1244 men and 1453 women. Descriptive statistics were computed for BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between energy intake and obesity adjusted for relevant co-variables. The prevalence of obesity among Lebanese adults was 26.1%. Gender differences in obesity estimates were observed across age groups and the three obesity classes, with men showing higher prevalence rates at the younger age groups (20-49 years), and women showing higher prevalence rates in older age groups (50 years and above). Obesity showed significant associations with socio-economic status in women; it decreased with higher educational attainment (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.91), greater household assets (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.72) and lower crowding index (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98), net of the effect of other co-variates. There was a significant positive association between obesity and energy intake in both genders, and a negative association between obesity and physical activity, significantly among women. Lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants of obesity are identified in this Lebanese population. Policy makers and service providers need to tailor public health strategies to tackle obesity accordingly.BMC Public Health 01/2015; 15(1):279. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1605-9 · 2.32 Impact Factor
Article: TURKISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim: To identify important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ABCA1 and ABCC8 (SUR1) genes and determine if they are associated with metabolic syndorome (MetS). Materials and methods: Fifty-eight subjects fulfilling all 5 MetS criteria were chosen from 4809 subjects who participated in our screening study (Trabzon MetS study). Forty-three subjects who did not fulfill any MetS criteria were chosen as the control group. Genotyping of the samples after DNA isolation was performed by direct sequencing. For SNP analysis, exons 7, 15, 19, 36, 41, and 49 for ABCA1 and exons 16 and 18 for ABCC8 were selected. Results: The most important SNPs in the present study were R219K (AGG-AAG for codon 219 in exon 7) for ABCA1, and 16-3t (CTT-TTT for codon 723 in exon 16) and GAG-GAG for codon 760 in exon 18 for ABCC8. Conclusion: It was concluded that MetS may be associated with polymorphisms in ABCA1 and ABCC8.Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 02/2013; DOI:10.3906/sag-1204-23 · 0.84 Impact Factor
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.joca.2015.03.030 · 4.66 Impact Factor