The constellation of metabolic abnormalities including centrally distributed obesity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, elevated blood pressure (BP), and hyperglycaemia is known as the metabolic syndrome. Associated with a 3 fold and 2 fold increase in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), respectively, it is thought to be a driver of the modern day epidemics of diabetes and CVD and has become a major public health challenge around the world. Since its initial description, several definitions of the syndrome have emerged. Each of these definitions used differing sets of criteria, which reflected contrasting views on pathogenic mechanisms and the need for clinical usefulness. The use of these definitions to conduct research into the metabolic syndrome in diverse populations resulted in wide ranging prevalence rates, inconsistencies and confusion, and spurred on the vigorous debate regarding how the metabolic syndrome should be defined. In response to this controversy, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has recently proposed a new definition, which is applicable to populations around the world. It is envisaged that the development of the new definition for the metabolic syndrome will help resolve the confusion caused by the number of earlier attempts to define this important entity.
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"Lipid parameters were estimated using Spectrophotometry technique and commercial kits (Randox Laboratories Ltd.) In the present study, diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on two methods: Firstly modified NCEP ATP III criteria (Heng et al., 2006) which defines metabolic syndrome by the presence of three or more of the following risk determinants: central obesity [WC >90 cm in men or WC> 80 in women); elevated TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C <40 mg/dl in men, <50 mg/dl in women), SBP ≥130 mmHg and/ or DBP ≥85 mmHg or medical treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension, FG >110 mg/dl. Secondly Subjects were defined as Metabolic syndrome by IDF (Zimmet et al., 2005) presence of central obesity with WC >90 cm in men or WC >80 cm in women plus any two of the following: elevated TG >150mg/dl or specific treatment for this lipid abnormality, HDL-C <40 mg/dl in men, <50 mg/dl in women or medical treatment of this lipid abnormality, SBP >130 and or DBP>85 mmHg or medical treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension, fasting glucose >100 mg/dl or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes. "
"Prevention of MetS and treatment of its main characteristics are very significant to fight against type 2 diabetes (Haffner et al., 1992; Hanson et al., 2002), cardiovascular disease (Isomaa et al., 2001; Lakka et al., 2002) and all-causes of mortality (Trevisan et al., 1998; Lakka et al., 2002). The characteristics of the MetS are abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high level of blood glucose (above 6 mmol/L), increased triglycerides (above 1.7 mmol/L), increased LDL (low density lipoproteins ) cholesterol thus at the level above 1.8 mmol/L and low level of HDL (high-density lipoproteins) cholesterol below 1.3 mmol/L (Reaven, 1988; Zimmet et al., 2005). Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have been shown to reduce MetS risk factors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims
Activation of Calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK) - II by exercise has plethora of benefits in health. Fatty acids play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Prevention of MetS and treatment of its main characteristics are very significant to fight against type 2 diabetes. CaMKII activation in the regulation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in relation to type 2 diabetes and MetS has not been studied, which became the focus of this present study.
Using Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry, we investigated saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Quantitative real time PCR was also used to assess the gene expression. Key findings
Results indicates that both palmitoleic acid and oleic acid which are monounsaturated fatty acids were increased in response to CaMKII activation. On the other hand, myristic acid and palmitic acid which are saturated fatty acids known to increase the risk factors of MetS and type 2 diabetes were decreased by exercise induction of CaMKII. Conversely, lauric acid also a saturated fatty acid was increased in response to CaMKII activation by exercise. This fatty acid is known to have beneficial effects in alleviating symptoms of both type 2 diabetes and MetS.
According to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that CaMKII activation by exercise regulate fatty acids essential in type 2 diabetes and MetS. CaMKII can be an avenue of designing novel therapeutic drugs in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes and MetS.
Life sciences 08/2014; 111(1-2):53-61. DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.07.013 · 2.70 Impact Factor
"It is considered a complex disorder with a set of cardiovascular risk factors, characterized by hypertension, the coexistence of excess body fat (abdominal obesity), hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia (high-plasma levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol and low/high-density lipoprotein levels)  . Clinical abnormalities of MS include microalbuminuria, proinflammatory and prothrombotic states . MS is also commonly associated with stroke, kidney disease, and type 2 diabetes   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-(1-7) is one of the most important active peptides of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) with recognized cardiovascular relevance; however recently several studies have shown the potential therapeutic role of Ang-(1-7) on treating and preventing metabolic disorders as well. This peptide achieves a special importance considering that in the last few decades obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) have become a growing worldwide health problem. Angiotensin (Ang) II is the most studied component of RAS and is increased during obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia (MS); some experimental evidence has shown that Ang II modulates appetite and metabolism as well as mechanisms that induce adipose tissue growth and metabolism in peripheral organs. Recent articles demonstrated that Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis modulates lipid and glucose metabolism and counterregulates the effects of Ang II. Based on these data, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway activation have been advocated as a new tool for treating metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the new evidence from animal and human experiments indicating the use of Ang-(1-7) in prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders.