Burden of rotavirus disease in European Union countries. Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:S7-S11
ABSTRACT Two new rotavirus vaccines are expected to be introduced in the European Union (EU) in coming years. A human rotavirus vaccine has already been licensed in several countries worldwide, and a pentavalent bovine vaccine has been submitted for licensure in the United States and the EU. Few data exist on the burden of rotavirus disease and its associated costs within the EU. To estimate the burden of rotavirus disease in the EU, we adapted a model based on the approach developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the European situation and applied it to recent population and mortality data from European countries. Country-specific estimates were added to obtain a global estimate of rotavirus episodes treated at home, clinic visits, hospitalization and death. We estimate that 3.6 million episodes of rotavirus disease occur annually among the 23.6 million children younger than 5 years of age in the EU. Every year, rotavirus accounts for 231 deaths, >87,000 hospitalizations and almost 700,000 outpatient visits. Rotavirus disease constitutes a large public health burden in the EU. Except for deaths, the burden of disease is not dissimilar to that in the developing world. Country-specific studies are required to more accurately understand the burden of disease caused by rotavirus. With the introduction of new rotavirus vaccines in sight, rotavirus gastroenteritis may be regarded as the single most frequent vaccine-preventable disease among children in the EU.
- SourceAvailable from: Emilie Karafillakis
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- "Prior to the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in Europe in 2006, it was estimated that 3.6 million episodes of rotavirus disease occurred annually among the 23.6 million children younger than 5 years of age . Every year, rotavirus accounted for 231 deaths, over 87,000 hospitalisations and almost 700,000 outpatient visits in Europe . "
ABSTRACT: Prior to the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in 2006, rotavirus was the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among European children <5 years of age. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine the effectiveness and impact of rotavirus vaccines in Europe following the first eight years of routine use. Four publication databases were searched, yielding 276 unique citations from February 1st, 2006 to July 31st, 2014. Twenty four studies on effectiveness (n=9) and impact (n=15) met the inclusion criteria. Across Europe, vaccine effectiveness against rotavirus-related healthcare utilisation ranged from 68% to 98%, consistent with efficacy data from clinical trials. Reductions in rotavirus hospitalisations ranged from 65% to 84%, consistent with findings from post-marketing studies from the US and Latin America. We confirm the significant public health benefit of rotavirus vaccination in Europe and provide further evidence to support implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in all European countries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Vaccine 03/2015; 25(18). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.03.016 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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- "Many countries in the world have reported that RVs are a leading cause of paediatric AGE, accounting for 27–51 % of all diarrhoea cases in children under 5 years of age (Parashar et al., 2006; Soriano-Gabarró et al., 2006). The RV prevalence observed in this study is higher than previously found in Bulgaria and in many other studies globally. "
ABSTRACT: Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem.Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections.Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus.Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A rotavirus, astrovirus, Gardia,Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba using ELISAs; norovirus by real-time RT-PCR; picobirnavirus and sapovirus by RT-PCR; adenovirus using PCR, and Salmonella,Shigella,E.coli,Yersinia and Campylobacter using standard bacterial cultures.Infectious origin was established in a total of 92 cases, and 23 samples remained negative. A single pathogen was found in 67 stools, of which rotaviruses were the most prevalent (56.7%),followed by noroviruses (19.4%),enteric adenoviruses (7.5%),astroviruses (6.0%),bacteria and parasites (4.5% each) and sapoviruses (1.4%). Rotavirus pre-dominant genotypes were G4P(46.3%) and G2P(21,4%), for astroviruses type 1a was the most common, while GII.4/2006b variant was the most prevalent among noroviruses. Bacteria were observed in 5 cases with Salmonella sp. as most prevalent, while parasites were found in 10 stool samples with Giardia intestinalis in 5 cases. The results demonstrated high morbidity associates with viral infections, and that rotavirus and norovirus remain the most common pathogens associated with severe gastroenteritis during summer months in Bulgaria, a country with temperate climate, and significant molecular diversity among circulating virus strains.Journal of Medical Microbiology 01/2015; 64(Pt_3). DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.000018 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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- "The genome of rotavirus consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA encoding six structural viral proteins (VPl-VP4, VP6-VP7) and six nonstructural proteins (NSP1-NSP6). In human rotaviruses, the major genotypes are Gl, G2, G3, G4, and G9, which are combined with P, P, and P. The five G-P combinations, G1P, G2P, G3P, G4P, and G9P, account for nearly 90% of strains worldwide, four of which share the same VP4 genotype; GlP accounts for 60–80% of strains most years  "
ABSTRACT: We detected Campylobacter spp. in 5% (20/380) of diarrheal stool samples collected at an outpatient clinic in Kyoto using a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit with a fluorescent detection reagent after DNA extraction. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% in comparison with those of semi-nested PCR for the differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Fourteen of the 20 samples were already determined as C. jejuni by the culture method. All 20 samples were also positive for C. jejuni by the PCR method. Among the 58 cultured samples, the sensitivity of the culture method against the LAMP method was 93.3% (14/15) and the specificity was 100% (43/43). The detection rate of Campylobacter spp. from the heated supernatants by the LAMP method was lower than that from the supernatant after DNA extraction. In total, 25% (5/20) of the Campylobacter-positive samples by the LAMP method were co-infected with norovirus (3/20), rotavirus (1/20), and human parechovirus (1/20), although no other bacterial co-infection was identified by the culture method. C. jejuni was mostly detected in children aged >5 years throughout the year. Based on these results, we concluded that care should be taken while diagnosing Campylobacter infection in children. Our newly modified LAMP method is a rapid, easy, and useful method for this diagnosis.Japanese journal of infectious diseases 09/2014; 67(5):374-8. DOI:10.7883/yoken.67.374 · 1.16 Impact Factor