Interplay between two hormone-independent activation domains in the androgen receptor.

Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Campus Gasthuisberg, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.65). 02/2006; 66(1):543-53. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2389
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in prostate cancer development, as well as its treatments, even for the hormone-refractory state. Here, we report that an earlier described lysine-to-arginine mutation at position 179 in AR leads to a more potent AR. We show that two activation domains (Tau-1 and Tau-5) are necessary and sufficient for the full activity of AR and the intrinsic activity of the AR-NTD. Two alpha-helices surrounding the Lys179 define the core of Tau-1, which can act as an autonomous activation function, independent of p160 coactivators. Furthermore, we show that although the recruitment of p160 coactivators is mediated through Tau-5, this event is attenuated by core Tau-1. This better definition of the mechanisms of action of both Tau-1 and Tau-5 is instrumental for the design of alternative therapeutic strategies against prostate cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) target genes direct development and survival of the prostate epithelial lineage, including prostate cancer (PCa). Thus, endocrine therapies that inhibit the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) are effective in treating PCa. AR transcriptional reactivation is central to resistance, as evidenced by the efficacy of AR retargeting in castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) with next-generation endocrine therapies abiraterone and enzalutamide. However, resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide limits this efficacy in most men, and PCa remains the second-leading cause of male cancer deaths. Here we show that AR gene rearrangements in CRPC tissues underlie a completely androgen-independent, yet AR-dependent, resistance mechanism. We discovered intragenic AR gene rearrangements in CRPC tissues, which we modeled using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome engineering. This modeling revealed that these AR gene rearrangements blocked full-length AR synthesis, but promoted expression of truncated AR variant proteins lacking the AR ligand-binding domain. Furthermore, these AR variant proteins maintained the constitutive activity of the AR transcriptional program and a CRPC growth phenotype independent of full-length AR or androgens. These findings demonstrate that AR gene rearrangements are a unique resistance mechanism by which AR transcriptional activity can be uncoupled from endocrine regulation in CRPC.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen-independent nuclear localization is required for androgen receptor (AR) transactivation in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and should be a key step leading to castration resistance. However, mechanism(s) leading to androgen-independent AR nuclear localization are poorly understood. Since the N-terminal domain (NTD) of AR plays a role in transactivation under androgen-depleted conditions, we investigated the role of NTD in AR nuclear localization in CRPC. Deletion mutagenesis was used to identify amino acid sequences in the NTD essential for its androgen-independent nuclear localization in C4-2, a widely used CRPC cell line. Deletion mutants of AR tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the 5'-end were generated and their signal distribution was investigated in C4-2 cells by fluorescent microscopy. Our results showed that the region of a.a. 294-556 was required for androgen-independent AR nuclear localization whereas a.a. 1-293 mediates Hsp90 regulation of AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells. Although a.a. 294-556 does not contain a nuclear import signal, it was able to enhance DHT-induced import of the ligand binding domain (LBD). Also, transactivation of the NTD could be uncoupled from its modulation of AR nuclear localization in C4-2 cells. These observations suggest an important role of NTD in AR intracellular trafficking and androgen-independent AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells.
    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 03/2014; · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    01/2014: pages 53-81; , ISBN: 978-1-62948-693-2

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