Article

Cheerleading-related injuries to children 5 to 18 years of age: United States, 1990-2002

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 01/2006; 117(1):122-9. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-1139
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To describe the epidemiology of cheerleading-related injuries among children in the United States.
A retrospective analysis of data for children 5 to 18 years old from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, 1990-2002.
Sample weights provided by the NEISS were used to make national estimates of cheerleading-related injuries. Injury rates were calculated for the most frequently occurring types of injury using cheerleading participation data.
An estimated 208,800 children (95% confidence interval [CI]: 166,620-250,980) 5 to 18 years of age were treated in US hospital emergency departments for cheerleading-related injuries during the 13-year period of 1990-2002. The number of injuries increased by 110% from 10,900 in 1990 to 22,900 in 2002, with an average of 16,100 (95% CI: 12,848-19,352) injuries per year (P < .01). The average age of injured children was 14.4 years (median: 15.0 years); 97% were female; and 85% of injuries occurred to children 12 to 17 years old. The number of injuries per 1000 participants per year was greater for 12- to 17-year-olds (8.1) than for 6- to 11-year-olds (1.2) for all cheerleading-related injuries combined (P < .01; relative risk [RR]: 6.49; 95% CI: 6.40-6.58), as well as for injuries grouped by body part injured and type of injury. The body parts injured were lower extremity (37.2%), upper extremity (26.4%), head/neck (18.8%), trunk (16.8%), and other (0.8%). Injury diagnoses were strains/sprains (52.4%), soft tissue injuries (18.4%), fractures/dislocations (16.4%), lacerations/avulsions (3.8%), concussions/closed head injuries (3.5%), and other (5.5%). Children in the 12- to 18-year age group were more likely to sustain strains or sprains to the lower extremity than 5- to 11-year-olds (P < .01; RR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.50-1.88). The majority of patients with cheerleading-related injuries was treated and released from the emergency department (98.7%). Patients sustaining fractures or dislocations were more likely to be admitted to the hospital than those sustaining other types of injury (P < .01; RR: 5.30; 95% CI: 3.29-6.43).
To our knowledge, this study is the first to report numbers, rates, and trends of cheerleading-related injuries to children using a nationally representative sample. Cheerleading is an important source of injury to girls. The number of cheerleading-related injuries more than doubled during the 13-year study period. A set of uniform rules and regulations directed at increasing the safety of cheerleading, that are universally enforced, should be implemented. Mandatory completion of a safety training and certification program should be required of all cheerleading coaches. Establishment of a national database for cheerleading-related injuries would facilitate the development and evaluation of injury-prevention strategies based on epidemiologic evidence.

0 Followers
 · 
90 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cheerleading has developed into a complex sport utilizing aspects of dance, gymnastics/tumbling, single- and multiple-partner stunts, and tosses in complex displays. Stunting and tosses elevates one or multiple participants into the air supported by teammates putting all at significant injury risk. We reviewed all cheerleading injuries captured by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 2002 to 2007 that presented to US Emergency Departments and used the new narrative feature added in 2002 to better differentiate injury context and severity. There were 4,245 cases of cheerleaders presenting to National Electronic Injury Surveillance System Emergency Departments from 2002 to 2007 with an average age of 14.6 years, and 96.3% were female. Most of these injuries could be treated as outpatients (97.9%). The extremities were most likely affected, 2,610 (61.5%), with further distribution breakdown as follows: upper extremity 1,339 (31.5%), lower extremity 1,271 (29.9%), head and neck 1,085 (25.6%), trunk 491 (11.6%), and other 48.0 (1.1%). The type of injury sustained in descending order is as follows: sprains/strains 1,871 (44.1%), fractures 709 (16.7%), and contusions 684 (16.1%). The most common mechanism of injury was a collision between two or more cheerleaders (1,242; 29.3% overall), followed by stunting (841; 19.8% overall), tumbling (478, 11.3% overall), and tossing (105, 2.5% overall). Subset analysis was performed on fracture, admit, and severe injury groups. The upper extremity was the most commonly injured part of the body and sustained a significantly greater number of fractures. However, head injuries were more likely to be severe. The value of a more detailed database specific to cheerleading could be invaluable in identifying risk factors and activity-specific injury patterns and facilitate implementing safety measures. III.
    02/2012; 72(2):521-6. DOI:10.1097/TA.0b013e31823f5fe3
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regular physical activity promotes better general state of health and is essential for the prevention of many illnesses, including musculoskeletal disorders. The promotion of both physical activity and its beneficial effects on health have contributed to the fast growth in the number of children and adolescents involved in organized or recreational sports activities which, unfortunately, has been followed by a significant increase on the number of injuries related to its practice. Taking into account that children and adolescents musculoskeletal system is still developing, its overuse particularly associated to competition sports activities may have long-term effects on their health. This paper aims to review the main questions of sports-related musculoskeletal disorders in children and adolescents, including the involved ethical issues, as well as to identify some of the main risk factors and to point out some of the measures to be adopted for its prevention. A prática regular de exercício físico promove a melhoria do estado geral de saúde e é fundamental paraa prevenção de um grande número de patologias, entre as quais se encontram as doenças músculoesqueléticas.A promoção da atividade física e dos seus efeitos benéficos para a saúde têm contribuídopara o rápido crescimento do número de crianças e adolescentes envolvidos em atividades desportivasorganizadas ou recreativas que, infelizmente, tem sido acompanhado por um significativo aumento donúmero de lesões relacionadas com a sua prática. Tendo em conta que o sistema músculo-esqueléticodas crianças e adolescentes se encontra ainda em desenvolvimento, a sobrecarga associada, em especial,à prática de modalidades desportivas de competição poderá ter reflexos de longo prazo para a sua saúde.Este artigo visa fazer uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os principais aspetos relacionados com as lesõesmúsculo-esqueléticas associadas à prática desportiva das crianças e adolescentes, incluindo os aspetoséticos envolvidos, assim como identificar alguns dos principais fatores de risco e apontar algumas dasmedidas a adotar para a sua prevenção.
    04/2013; 9(1):31-48. DOI:10.6063/motricidade.9(1).2461
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For decades, female athletes were relegated to the sidelines – physically and metaphorically speaking. The cheerleader, the girl who looked pretty and cheered for the boys, became a symbol for many women's sports activists and second-wave feminists of the place athletically inclined females occupied in the sport world. As access to sports, teams and funding increased for women's sports beginning in the 1970s and exploding in the 1990s, the cheerleader seemed to be an athletic anachronism. But the third-wave generation of cheerleaders had different ideas. Marginalized again, this time by fellow female athletes, cheerleaders have challenged the negative stereotypes by making cheerleading a sport on their own terms. Through personal agency, these girls embrace a powerful image of the cheerleader – one that fuses identities of femininity and athleticism. For these girls, it is not a choice between being a cheerleader or jock, girlie or athletic. Instead, they create a blended identity by keeping the feminine markers of a cheerleader while focusing on a competitive role rather than a supportive one.
    06/2011; 14(5):660-669. DOI:10.1080/17430437.2011.575109

Preview

Download
0 Downloads