Article

Generation of a functional mammary gland from a single stem cell

Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 02/2006; 439(7072):84-8. DOI: 10.1038/nature04372
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The existence of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) has been postulated from evidence that the mammary gland can be regenerated by transplantation of epithelial fragments in mice. Interest in MaSCs has been further stimulated by their potential role in breast tumorigenesis. However, the identity and purification of MaSCs has proved elusive owing to the lack of defined markers. We isolated discrete populations of mouse mammary cells on the basis of cell-surface markers and identified a subpopulation (Lin-CD29hiCD24+) that is highly enriched for MaSCs by transplantation. Here we show that a single cell, marked with a LacZ transgene, can reconstitute a complete mammary gland in vivo. The transplanted cell contributed to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages and generated functional lobuloalveolar units during pregnancy. The self-renewing capacity of these cells was demonstrated by serial transplantation of clonal outgrowths. In support of a potential role for MaSCs in breast cancer, the stem-cell-enriched subpopulation was expanded in premalignant mammary tissue from MMTV-wnt-1 mice and contained a higher number of MaSCs. Our data establish that single cells within the Lin-CD29hiCD24+ population are multipotent and self-renewing, properties that define them as MaSCs.

1 Follower
 · 
211 Views
  • Julie M Sheridan, Matthew E Ritchie, Sarah A Best, Kun Jiang, Tamara J Beck, François Vaillant, Kevin Liu, Ross A Dickins, Gordon K Smyth, Geoffrey J Lindeman, Jane E Visvader
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The molecular regulators that orchestrate stem cell renewal, proliferation and differentiation along the mammary epithelial hierarchy remain poorly understood. Here we have performed a large-scale pooled RNAi screen in primary mouse mammary stem cell (MaSC)-enriched basal cells using 1295 shRNAs against genes principally involved in transcriptional regulation. MaSC-enriched basal cells transduced with lentivirus pools carrying shRNAs were maintained as non-adherent mammospheres, a system known to support stem and progenitor cells. Integrated shRNAs that altered culture kinetics were identified by next generation sequencing as relative frequency changes over time. RNA-seq-based expression profiling coupled with in vitro progenitor and in vivo transplantation assays was used to confirm a role for candidate genes in mammary stem and/or progenitor cells. Utilizing a mammosphere-based assay, the screen identified several candidate regulators. Although some genes had been previously implicated in mammary gland development, the vast majority of genes uncovered have no known function within the mammary gland. RNA-seq analysis of freshly purified primary mammary epithelial populations and short-term cultured mammospheres was used to confirm the expression of candidate regulators. Two genes, Asap1 and Prox1, respectively implicated in breast cancer metastasis and progenitor cell function in other systems, were selected for further analysis as their roles in the normal mammary gland were unknown. Both Prox1 and Asap1 were shown to act as negative regulators of progenitor activity in vitro, and Asap1 knock-down led to a marked increase in repopulating activity in vivo, implying a role in stem cell activity. This study has revealed a number of novel genes that influence the activity or survival of mammary stem and/or progenitor cells. Amongst these, we demonstrate that Prox1 and Asap1 behave as negative regulators of mammary stem/progenitor function. Both of these genes have also been implicated in oncogenesis. Our findings provide proof of principle for the use of short-term cultured primary MaSC/basal cells in functional RNAi screens.
    BMC Cancer 04/2015; 15(1):221. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1187-z · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Characterization of normal breast stem cells is important for understanding their role in breast development and in breast cancer. However, the identity of these cells is a subject of controversy and their localization in the breast epithelium is not known. In this study, we utilized a novel approach to analyze the morphogenesis of mammary lobules, by combining one-dimensional theoretical models and computer-generated 3D fractals. Comparing predictions of these models with immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections for candidate stem cell markers, we defined distinct areas where stem cells reside in the mammary lobule. An increased representation of stem cells was found in smaller, less developed lobules compared to larger, more mature lobules, with marked differences in the gland of nulliparous versus parous women and that of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers versus non-carriers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.stemcr.2015.02.013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The outlook on stem cell (SC) biology is shifting from a rigid hierarchical to a more flexible model in which the identity and the behavior of adult SCs, far from being fixed, are determined by the dynamic integration of cell autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. Within this framework, the recent discovery of thousands of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with regulatory function is redefining the landscape of transcriptome regulation, highlighting the interplay of epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional mechanisms in the specification of cell fate and in the regulation of developmental processes. Furthermore, the expression of ncRNAs is often tissue- or even cell type-specific, emphasizing their involvement in defining space, time and developmental stages in gene regulation. Such a role of ncRNAs has been investigated in embryonic and induced pluripotent SCs, and in numerous types of adult SCs and progenitors, including those of the breast, which will be the topic of this review. We will focus on ncRNAs with an important role in breast cancer, in particular in mammary cancer SCs and progenitors, and highlight the ncRNA-based circuitries whose subversion alters a number of the epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional events that control "stemness" in the physiological setting.
    Frontiers in Genetics 02/2015; 6:72. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2015.00072

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
25 Downloads
Available from
Jun 24, 2014