Sleep-like concentrations of growth hormone and cortisol modulate type1 and type2 in-vitro cytokine production in human T cells
ABSTRACT Slow wave sleep (SWS) is characterized by maximum release of growth hormone (GH) and minimum release of cortisol. We hypothesized that this hormonal pattern during SWS leads, in addition to generally increased T cell cytokine production, to a shift towards type1 cytokines. To test this hypothesis, blood was sampled from 8 humans during SWS, and whole blood cultures were activated in-vitro with ionomycin and phorbol-myrestate-acetate (PMA) in the absence and presence of GH neutralizing antibody (Ab) or physiological concentrations of cortisol. Production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was measured using multiparametric flow cytometry. GH Ab decreased IFN-gamma+CD4+ cells but had no effect on other cytokines. Cortisol alone and in combination with GH Ab decreased CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2. Simultaneously, these two reactants reduced IL-4+CD4+ cells, so that the ratio of IFN-gamma/IL4 producing CD4+ cells indicated an unexpected shift towards type1 dominance. Results support the view that release of GH by increasing particularly production of IFN-gamma can contribute to the shift in type1/type2 balance towards type1 activity characterizing SWS. Suppression of cortisol during this sleep period enhances both type1 and type2 activity. Yet, our finding of predominant type1 activity after cortisol administration, rules out any relevance of this suppression for the shift towards type1 activity during SWS.
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- "promote type 1 cytokine activity (Lange et al. 2006a). Interestingly, peaks of proinflammatory cytokines during the rest period have been observed, often during the early SWS-dominated portion of sleep, in humans as well as in animals, on the mRNA and protein levels in different tissues including the brain, adipose tissue, and lymph nodes (for a review, see Besedovsky et al. 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Sleep has a critical role in promoting health. Research over the past decade has documented that sleep disturbance has a powerful influence on the risk of infectious disease, the occurrence and progression of several major medical illnesses including cardiovascular disease and cancer, and the incidence of depression. Increasingly, the field has focused on identifying the biological mechanisms underlying these effects. This review highlights the impact of sleep on adaptive and innate immunity, with consideration of the dynamics of sleep disturbance, sleep restriction, and insomnia on (a) antiviral immune responses with consequences for vaccine responses and infectious disease risk and (b) proinflammatory immune responses with implications for cardiovascular disease, cancer, and depression. This review also discusses the neuroendocrine and autonomic neural underpinnings linking sleep disturbance and immunity and the reciprocal links between sleep and inflammatory biology. Finally, interventions are discussed as effective strategies to improve sleep, and potential opportunities are identified to promote sleep health for therapeutic control of chronic infectious, inflammatory, and neuropsychiatric diseases. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 66 is November 30, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Psychology 07/2014; 66(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115205 · 21.81 Impact Factor
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- "However, the systemic inflammatory profile after PSD is controversial. Studies have found that patients with sleep disturbance show altered circulating concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-1 [6,39]. However, other studies have failed to detect changes in circulating levels of IL-6 [31,34] and TNF-α  in relation to sleep deprivation. "
ABSTRACT: Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase inflammatory markers in rat sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inflammation is a condition associated with pathologies such as obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated changes in the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in different depots of white adipose tissue in rats. We also assessed lipid profiles and serum levels of corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin after 96 hours of sleep deprivation. The study consisted of two groups: a control (C) group and a paradoxical sleep deprivation by 96 h (PSD) group. Ten rats were randomly assigned to either the control group (C) or the PSD. Mesenteric (MEAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissue, liver and serum were collected following completion of the PSD protocol. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were analysed in MEAT and RPAT, and leptin, adiponectin, glucose, corticosterone and lipid profile levels were analysed in serum. IL-6 levels were elevated in RPAT but remained unchanged in MEAT after PSD. IL-10 protein concentration was not altered in either depot, and TNF-α levels decreased in MEAT. Glucose, triglycerides (TG), VLDL and leptin decreased in serum after 96 hours of PSD; adiponectin was not altered and corticosterone was increased. PSD decreased fat mass and may modulate the cytokine content in different depots of adipose tissue. The inflammatory response was diminished in both depots of adipose tissue, with increased IL-6 levels in RPAT and decreased TNF-α protein concentrations in MEAT and increased levels of corticosterone in serum.Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2010; 9(1):125. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-9-125 · 2.22 Impact Factor