Sleep-like concentrations of growth hormone and cortisol modulate type1 and type2 in-vitro cytokine production in human T cells.
ABSTRACT Slow wave sleep (SWS) is characterized by maximum release of growth hormone (GH) and minimum release of cortisol. We hypothesized that this hormonal pattern during SWS leads, in addition to generally increased T cell cytokine production, to a shift towards type1 cytokines. To test this hypothesis, blood was sampled from 8 humans during SWS, and whole blood cultures were activated in-vitro with ionomycin and phorbol-myrestate-acetate (PMA) in the absence and presence of GH neutralizing antibody (Ab) or physiological concentrations of cortisol. Production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was measured using multiparametric flow cytometry. GH Ab decreased IFN-gamma+CD4+ cells but had no effect on other cytokines. Cortisol alone and in combination with GH Ab decreased CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2. Simultaneously, these two reactants reduced IL-4+CD4+ cells, so that the ratio of IFN-gamma/IL4 producing CD4+ cells indicated an unexpected shift towards type1 dominance. Results support the view that release of GH by increasing particularly production of IFN-gamma can contribute to the shift in type1/type2 balance towards type1 activity characterizing SWS. Suppression of cortisol during this sleep period enhances both type1 and type2 activity. Yet, our finding of predominant type1 activity after cortisol administration, rules out any relevance of this suppression for the shift towards type1 activity during SWS.
- SourceAvailable from: Rishabha MalviyaJournal of Chronotherapy and Drug Delivery. 12/2010; 1(1):19-25.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sleep deprivation has been shown to increase inflammatory markers in rat sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inflammation is a condition associated with pathologies such as obesity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated changes in the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in different depots of white adipose tissue in rats. We also assessed lipid profiles and serum levels of corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin after 96 hours of sleep deprivation. The study consisted of two groups: a control (C) group and a paradoxical sleep deprivation by 96 h (PSD) group. Ten rats were randomly assigned to either the control group (C) or the PSD. Mesenteric (MEAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissue, liver and serum were collected following completion of the PSD protocol. Levels of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were analysed in MEAT and RPAT, and leptin, adiponectin, glucose, corticosterone and lipid profile levels were analysed in serum. IL-6 levels were elevated in RPAT but remained unchanged in MEAT after PSD. IL-10 protein concentration was not altered in either depot, and TNF-α levels decreased in MEAT. Glucose, triglycerides (TG), VLDL and leptin decreased in serum after 96 hours of PSD; adiponectin was not altered and corticosterone was increased. PSD decreased fat mass and may modulate the cytokine content in different depots of adipose tissue. The inflammatory response was diminished in both depots of adipose tissue, with increased IL-6 levels in RPAT and decreased TNF-α protein concentrations in MEAT and increased levels of corticosterone in serum.Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2010; 9:125. · 2.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The sleep-wake cycle is characterized by complex interactions among the central nervous, the endocrine and the immune systems. Continuous 24-h wakefulness prevents sleep-associated hormone regulation resulting in impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Importantly, cytokines and hormones also modulate the complement system, which in turn regulates several adaptive immune responses. However, it is unknown whether sleep affects the activation and the immunoregulatory properties of the complement system. Here, we determined whether the 24-h sleep-wake cycle has an impact on: (i) the levels of circulating complement factors; and (ii) TLR4-mediated IL-12 production from human IFN-γ primed monocytes in the presence or absence of C5a receptor signaling. For this purpose, we analyzed the blood and blood-derived monocytes of 13 healthy donors during a regular sleep-wake cycle in comparison to 24 h of continuous wakefulness. We found decreased plasma levels of C3 and C4 during nighttime hours that were not affected by sleep. In contrast, sleep was associated with increased complement activation as reflected by elevated C3a plasma levels during nighttime sleep. Sleep deprivation prevented such activation. At the cellular level, C5a negatively regulated TLR4-mediated IL-12p40 and p70 production from human monocytes. Importantly, this regulatory effect of C5a on IL-12p70 production was effective only during daytime hours. Thus, similar to hormones, some complement factors and immunoregulatory properties of C5a are influenced by sleep and the circadian rhythm. Our findings that continuous wakefulness has a negative impact on complement activation may provide a rationale for the immunosupportive functions of sleep.Brain Behavior and Immunity 04/2011; 25(7):1416-26. · 5.61 Impact Factor