Phytopreventative anti-hyperlipidemic effects of gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats.
ABSTRACT Gynostemma pentaphyllum is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Preliminary studies indicate Gynostemma isolated triterpine glycosides lower cholesterol. Our studies examine anti-hyperlipidemic effects of gypenosides.
Gynostemma activity was examined in poloxamer P407 induced hyperlipidemia in rats.
1 g/kg P407 induced plasma triglyceride (25 fold), total cholesterol (6 fold), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (7 fold), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (1.6 fold), and nitrite (8 fold). After acute (4 days) and chronic (12 days) oral administration the gypenoside extract (250 mg/kg) reduced triglyceride (53% and 85%, respectively) and total cholesterol levels (10% and 44%, respectively). No significant effects on LDL or HDL cholesterol were observed. The gypenosides reduced nitrite approximately 80%. Similar results were obtained with atorvastatin (75 mg/kg for 4 days); except that LDL cholesterol was reduced (17%) and HDL cholesterol increased. 50% of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plasma activity was inhibited by approximately 20 microM P407. Gynostemma had no effect on LL, however, it reversed the P407 inhibition of LPL activity in a concentration-dependent manner, with a 2-fold increase at approximately 10 microg/ml.
These studies demonstrate efficacy of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in lowering triglyceride, cholesterol and nitrite in acute hyperlipidemia. The results suggest further investigations of Gynostemma gypenosides are warranted to examine the mechanisms of this activity.
Article: Determination of trace elements in herbal tea products and their infusions consumed in Thailand.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nineteen elements, Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Sb, Ba, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, were determined in three types of popular herbal tea products, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Camellia sinensis, and Morus alba. These herbal tea products, both imported and locally made products, are widely consumed in Thailand and worldwide. Microwave-assisted acid digestion was used for all of the samples, and the element contents were determined by ICP-MS. The concentrations of all elements varied among these herbal teas. Ca and Mg were the most abundant elements in all herbal samples (1384-34070 and 783-7739 mg/kg, respectively). Most elements in these herbal tea powders were also released into the infusions at different percentages depending on types of herbs. G. pentaphyllum infusion contained essential elements (Mg, Ca, V, and Fe) at higher levels than C. sinensis and M.alba infusions. Al and Ni were present at high levels in C. sinensis infusion, and Cd level was high in M. alba infusion. The daily intake of all elements from these herbal tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake. Therefore, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of toxic metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2006; 54(18):6939-44. · 2.82 Impact Factor