A high throughput targeted gene disruption method for Alternaria brassicicola functional genomics using linear minimal element (LME) constructs.
ABSTRACT Alternaria brassicicola causes black spot disease of cultivated Brassicas and has been used consistently as a necrotrophic fungal pathogen for studies with Arabidopsis. In A. brassicicola, mutant generation has been the most rate-limiting step for the functional analysis of individual genes due to low efficiency of both transformation and targeted integration. To improve the targeted gene disruption efficiency as well as to expedite gene disruption construct production, we used a short linear construct with minimal elements, an antibiotic resistance selectable marker gene, and a 250- to 600-bp-long partial target gene. The linear minimal element (LME) constructs consistently produced stable transformants for diverse categories of genes. Typically, 100% of the transformants were targeted gene disruption mutants when using the LME constructs, compared with inconsistent transformation and usually less than 10% targeted gene disruption with circular plasmid disruption constructs. Each mutant displayed a unique molecular signature thought to originate from endogenous exonuclease activities in fungal cells. Our data suggests that a DNA double-stranded break repair mechanism (DSBR) functions to increase targeting efficiency. This method is advantageous for high throughput gene disruption, overexpression, and reporter gene introduction within target genes, especially for asexual filamentous fungi where genetic approaches are unfavorable.
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ABSTRACT: Neurospora crassa is a central organism in the history of twentieth-century genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology. Here, we report a high-quality draft sequence of the N. crassa genome. The approximately 40-megabase genome encodes about 10,000 protein-coding genes--more than twice as many as in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and only about 25% fewer than in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of the gene set yields insights into unexpected aspects of Neurospora biology including the identification of genes potentially associated with red light photobiology, genes implicated in secondary metabolism, and important differences in Ca2+ signalling as compared with plants and animals. Neurospora possesses the widest array of genome defence mechanisms known for any eukaryotic organism, including a process unique to fungi called repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). Genome analysis suggests that RIP has had a profound impact on genome evolution, greatly slowing the creation of new genes through genomic duplication and resulting in a genome with an unusually low proportion of closely related genes.Nature 05/2003; 422(6934):859-68. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation has been successfully applied to the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola. Both protoplasts and intact cells have been transformed to hygromycin B resistance. Furthermore, A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation using homologous DNA originating from the M. graminicola ABC transporter gene MgAtr2 resulted in the efficient generation of disruption mutants. In 44% of the transformants, disruption of MgAtr2 was achieved and transformants resulted from the integration of a single copy of the transforming DNA. These results indicate that A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a useful tool to generate targeted gene disruption in the phytopathogen M. graminicola, where gene targeting by conventional methods is hardly possible.Current Genetics 08/2001; 39(5-6):388-93. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present the diploid genome sequence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Because C. albicans has no known haploid or homozygous form, sequencing was performed as a whole-genome shotgun of the heterozygous diploid genome in strain SC5314, a clinical isolate that is the parent of strains widely used for molecular analysis. We developed computational methods to assemble a diploid genome sequence in good agreement with available physical mapping data. We provide a whole-genome description of heterozygosity in the organism. Comparative genomic analyses provide important clues about the evolution of the species and its mechanisms of pathogenesis.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2004; 101(19):7329-34. · 9.74 Impact Factor