We have identified carbon catabolite repression (CCR) as a regulator of amino acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, elucidated the permeases regulated by CCR, and identified the mechanisms involved in amino acid permease regulation by CCR. Transport of l-arginine and l-leucine was increased by approximately 10-25-fold in yeast grown in carbon sources alternate to glucose, indicating regulation by CCR. In wild type yeast the uptake (pmol/10(6) cells/h), in glucose versus galactose medium, of l-[(14)C]arginine was (0.24 +/- 0.04 versus 6.11 +/- 0.42) and l-[(14)C]leucine was (0.30 +/- 0.02 versus 3.60 +/- 0.50). The increase in amino acid uptake was maintained when galactose was replaced with glycerol. Deletion of gap1Delta and agp1Delta from the wild type strain did not alter CCR induced increase in l-leucine uptake; however, deletion of further amino acid permeases reduced the increase in l-leucine uptake in the following manner: 36% (gnp1Delta), 62% (bap2Delta), 83% (Delta(bap2-tat1)). Direct immunofluorescence showed large increases in the expression of Gnp1 and Bap2 proteins when grown in galactose compared with glucose medium. By extending the functional genomic approach to include major nutritional transducers of CCR in yeast, we concluded that SNF/MIG, GCN, or PSK pathways were not involved in the regulation of amino acid permeases by CCR. Strikingly, the deletion of TOR1, which regulates cellular response to changes in nitrogen availability, from the wild type strain abolished the CCR-induced amino acid uptake. Our results provide novel insights into the regulation of yeast amino acid permeases and signaling mechanisms involved in this regulation.
"Yeast cells were recovered by centrifugation, washed in 0.6 mL of a HEPES based transport buffer , and finally resuspended to OD 600 = 0.7 − 0.8. Radio-labelled amino acid uptake was measured using techniques described previously  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catabolite repression (CCR) regulates amino acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a TOR-kinase mediated mechanism. When glucose, the preferred fuel in S. cerevisiae, is substituted by galactose, amino acid uptake is increased. Here we have assessed the contribution and metabolic significance of this surfeit of amino acid in yeast undergoing catabolite derepression (CDR). L-[U-(14)C]leucine oxidation was increased 15 ± 1 fold in wild type (WT) strain grown in galactose compared to glucose. Under CDR, leucine oxidation was (i) proportional to uptake, as demonstrated by decreased uptake and oxidation of leucine in strains deleted of major leucine permeases and (ii) entirely dependent upon the TCA cycle, as cytochrome c1 (Cyt1) deleted strains could not grow in galactose. A regulator of amino acid carbon entry into the TCA cycle, branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, was also increased 29 ± 3 fold under CCR in WT strain. Protein expression of key TCA cycle enzymes, citrate synthase (Cs), and Cyt1 was increased during CDR. In summary, CDR upregulation of amino acid uptake is accompanied by increased utilization of amino acids for yeast growth. The mechanism for this is likely to be an increase in protein expression of key regulators of the TCA cycle.
"However, phosphorylation by PKA of Sfp1, in the absence of glucose, is not sufficient to direct Sfp1 to the nucleus . This indicates that an alternative signalling pathway is involved in the process; it may be Tor-dependent, since there is already evidence for activation by glucose of the Tor signalling pathway [36,38,39]. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this effect of glucose on Tor has not been yet established. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pattern of gene transcripts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strongly affected by the presence of glucose. An increased activity of protein kinase A (PKA), triggered by a rise in the intracellular concentration of cAMP, can account for many of the effects of glucose on transcription. In S. cerevisiae three genes, TPK1, TPK2, and TPK3, encode catalytic subunits of PKA. The lack of viability of tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 triple mutants may be suppressed by mutations such as yak1 or msn2/msn4. To investigate the requirement for PKA in glucose control of gene expression, we have compared the effects of glucose on global transcription in a wild-type strain and in two strains devoid of PKA activity, tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 yak1 and tpk1 tpk2 tpk3 msn2 msn4.
We have identified different classes of genes that can be induced -or repressed- by glucose in the absence of PKA. Representative examples are genes required for glucose utilization and genes involved in the metabolism of other carbon sources, respectively. Among the genes responding to glucose in strains devoid of PKA some are also controlled by a redundant signalling pathway involving PKA activation, while others are not affected when PKA is activated through an increase in cAMP concentration. On the other hand, among genes that do not respond to glucose in the absence of PKA, some give a full response to increased cAMP levels, even in the absence of glucose, while others appear to require the cooperation of different signalling pathways. We show also that, for a number of genes controlled by glucose through a PKA-dependent pathway, the changes in mRNA levels are transient. We found that, in cells grown in gluconeogenic conditions, expression of a small number of genes, mainly connected with the response to stress, is reduced in the strains lacking PKA.
In S. cerevisiae, the transcriptional responses to glucose are triggered by a variety of pathways, alone or in combination, in which PKA is often involved. Redundant signalling pathways confer a greater robustness to the response to glucose, while cooperative pathways provide a greater flexibility.
"Interestingly, most of the permeases transporting nitrogenous compounds were regulated by CRE1 in a growth-rate independent manner, suggesting that proteins and their degradation products are among the preferred substitutes for fast metabolizable carbohydrates. A similar increase in amino acid uptake upon CCR has been reported for S. cerevisiae , but the effect was MIG1 independent in this case. Since the natural habitat of T. reesei (decaying wood) is poor in nitrogen but also in repressing carbon sources, this mechanism may enable the fungus to recruit available nitrogenous compounds at an enhanced rate. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification and characterization of the transcriptional regulatory networks governing the physiology and adaptation of microbial cells is a key step in understanding their behaviour. One such wide-domain regulatory circuit, essential to all cells, is carbon catabolite repression (CCR): it allows the cell to prefer some carbon sources, whose assimilation is of high nutritional value, over less profitable ones. In lower multicellular fungi, the C2H2 zinc finger CreA/CRE1 protein has been shown to act as the transcriptional repressor in this process. However, the complete list of its gene targets is not known.
Here, we deciphered the CRE1 regulatory range in the model cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading fungus Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) by profiling transcription in a wild-type and a delta-cre1 mutant strain on glucose at constant growth rates known to repress and de-repress CCR-affected genes. Analysis of genome-wide microarrays reveals 2.8% of transcripts whose expression was regulated in at least one of the four experimental conditions: 47.3% of which were repressed by CRE1, whereas 29.0% were actually induced by CRE1, and 17.2% only affected by the growth rate but CRE1 independent. Among CRE1 repressed transcripts, genes encoding unknown proteins and transport proteins were overrepresented. In addition, we found CRE1-repression of nitrogenous substances uptake, components of chromatin remodeling and the transcriptional mediator complex, as well as developmental processes.
Our study provides the first global insight into the molecular physiological response of a multicellular fungus to carbon catabolite regulation and identifies several not yet known targets in a growth-controlled environment.
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