ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta-induced ubiquitin-like protein that is conjugated to cellular proteins during innate immune responses to viral and bacterial infections. A recent proteomics study identified 158 human proteins targeted for ISG15 conjugation, including the ISG15 E1 and E2 enzymes (Ube1L and UbcH8, respectively) and a HECT E3 enzyme, Herc5. Like the genes encoding Ube1L and UbcH8, expression of Herc5 was also induced by IFN-beta, suggesting that Herc5 might be a component of the ISG15 conjugation system. Consistent with this, small interfering RNAs targeting Herc5 had a dramatic effect on overall ISG15 conjugation in human cells, abrogating conjugation to the vast majority of ISG15 target proteins in vivo. In addition, co-transfection of plasmids expressing ISG15, Ube1L, UbcH8, and Herc5 resulted in robust ISG15 conjugation in non-IFN-treated cells, while the active-site cysteine mutant of Herc5 or a mutant lacking the RCC1 repeat region did not support ISG15 conjugation. These results demonstrate that Herc5 is required for conjugation of ISG15 to a broad spectrum of target proteins in human cells.
"HERC5 is ubiquitously expressed in many cell types and tissues including, but not limited to, effector and central memory T cells, dendritic cells, CD14+ monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic and granulopoietic stem cells, testis (germ and leydig cells), ovary, liver and lung [5-17]. HERC5 expression is up-regulated in response to IFN [18,19], in vitro and in vivo virus infection [1,20-25], lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-1β . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I interferon (IFN) inhibits virus replication by activating multiple antiviral mechanisms and pathways. It has long been recognized that type I IFNs can potently block HIV-1 replication in vitro; as such, HIV-1 has been used as a system to identify and characterize IFN-induced antiviral proteins responsible for this block. IFN-induced HERC5 contains an amino-terminal Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (RCC1)-like domain and a carboxyl-terminal Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus (HECT) domain. HERC5 is the main cellular E3 ligase that conjugates the IFN-induced protein ISG15 to proteins. This E3 ligase activity was previously shown to inhibit the replication of evolutionarily diverse viruses, including HIV-1. The contribution of the RCC1-like domain to the antiviral activity of HERC5 was previously unknown.
In this study, we showed that HERC5 inhibits HIV-1 particle production by a second distinct mechanism that targets the nuclear export of Rev/RRE-dependent RNA. Unexpectedly, the E3 ligase activity of HERC5 was not required for this inhibition. Instead, this activity required the amino-terminal RCC1-like domain of HERC5. Inhibition correlated with a reduction in intracellular RanGTP protein levels and/or the ability of RanGTP to interact with RanBP1. Inhibition also correlated with altered subcellular localization of HIV-1 Rev. In addition, we demonstrated that positive evolutionary selection is operating on HERC5. We identified a region in the RCC1-like domain that exhibits an exceptionally high probability of having evolved under positive selection and showed that this region is required for HERC5-mediated inhibition of nuclear export.
We have identified a second distinct mechanism by which HERC5 inhibits HIV-1 replication and demonstrate that HERC5 is evolving under strong positive selection. Together, our findings contribute to a growing body of evidence suggesting that HERC5 is a novel host restriction factor.
"For example, ISG15 (first reported in 1978) contains two ubiquitin-like domains linked by a hinge, and the C-terminal LRLRGG motif is responsible for its conjugating onto target proteins. ISG15 and its E1 activating enzyme Ube1L, E2 conjugating enzyme UbcH8, E3 ligase Herc5 are all robustly induced upon viral infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, causing the ISGylation of a wide spectrum of proteins     . The functional consequences of ISGylation are currently under intensive investigation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) are central to the host innate immune regulations. Dynamically, PTMs fine-tune the spatial and temporary responses of immune- and non-immune-cells, in accordance with extracellular and intracellular stresses. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) are emerging as the important multi-functional signals, controlling the activation, stability, affinity and location of many signaling proteins. Recent investigations, at the molecular-cellular-animal models, have shed new light on the versatility of the ubiquitin, SUMO and ISG15, for shaping the strength and duration of the innate immune responses. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the ubiquitin and Ubls in the innate immunity, the first line of host defense against microbial infection.
"They are characterized by having a C-terminal HECT domain, involved in both accepting ubiquitin from an ubiquitin-conjugating protein and catalyzing its transfer to the protein to be ubiquitinated . It has been also shown that a few mammalian HECT proteins may attach the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15, instead of ubiquitin, to its substrates –. The functions of animal HECTs have been studied in detail. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HECT ubiquitin ligases are key components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is present in all eukaryotes. In this study, the patterns of emergence of HECT genes in plants are described. Phylogenetic and structural data indicate that viridiplantae have six main HECT subfamilies, which arose before the split that separated green algae from the rest of plants. It is estimated that the common ancestor of all plants contained seven HECT genes. Contrary to what happened in animals, the number of HECT genes has been kept quite constant in all lineages, both in chlorophyta and streptophyta, although evolutionary recent duplications are found in some species. Several of the genes found in plants may have originated very early in eukaryotic evolution, given that they have clear similarities, both in sequence and structure, to animal genes. Finally, in Arabidopsis thaliana, we found significant correlations in the expression patterns of HECT genes and some ancient, broadly expressed genes that belong to a different ubiquitin ligase family, called RBR. These results are discussed in the context of the evolution of the gene families required for ubiquitination in plants.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68536. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0068536 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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