Cholesterol-regulated Translocation of NPC1L1 to the Cell Surface Facilitates Free Cholesterol Uptake

University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 04/2006; 281(10):6616-24. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M511123200
Source: PubMed


Although NPC1L1 is required for intestinal cholesterol absorption, data demonstrating mechanisms by which this protein facilitates the process are few. In this study, a hepatoma cell line stably expressing human NPC1L1 was established, and cholesterol uptake was studied. A relationship between NPC1L1 intracellular trafficking and cholesterol uptake was apparent. At steady state, NPC1L1 proteins localized predominantly to the transferrin-positive endocytic recycling compartment, where free cholesterol also accumulated as revealed by filipin staining. Interestingly, acute cholesterol depletion induced with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin stimulated relocation of NPC1L1 to the plasma membrane, preferentially to a newly formed "apical-like" subdomain. This translocation was associated with a remarkable increase in cellular cholesterol uptake, which in turn was dose-dependently inhibited by ezetimibe, a novel cholesterol absorption inhibitor that specifically binds to NPC1L1. These findings define a cholesterol-regulated endocytic recycling of NPC1L1 as a novel mechanism regulating cellular cholesterol uptake.

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    • "These findings, however, are in agreement with a previous study reported the relocation of NPC1L1 to the cell membrane after cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Yu et al., 2006). This translocation was associated with an increase in cellular cholesterol uptake which was inhibited by ezetimibe (Yu et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The known mechanism by which orlistat decreases the absorption of dietary cholesterol is by inhibition of intestinal lipases. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of orlistat to limit cholesterol absorption by inhibition of the cholesterol transport protein Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) as another mechanism of action. In situ rat intestinal perfusion studies were conducted to study the effect of orlistat on jejunal cholesterol absorption. Inhibition kinetic parameters were calculated from in vitro inhibition studies using Caco2 and NPC1L1 transfected cell lines. The in situ studies demonstrated that intestinal perfusion of orlistat (100µM) was able to reduce cholesterol absorption by three-fold when compared to control (i.e. in the absence of orlistat, P<0.01). In vitro studies using Caco2 cells demonstrated orlistat to reduce the cellular uptake of cholesterol by 30%. Additionally, orlistat reduced the cellular uptake of cholesterol in dose dependent manner in NPC1L1 transfected cell line with an IC50=1.2µM. Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated a noncompetitive inhibition of NPC1L1 by orlistat. Beside the already established mechanism by which orlistat reduces the absorption of cholesterol, we demonstrated for the first time that orlistat limits cholesterol absorption by the inhibition of NPC1L1 transport protein. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    European journal of pharmacology 06/2015; 762. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.05.060 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "A significantly up-regulated gene involved in cholesterol uptake by cells is NPC1L1 (increased 333-fold). It encodes the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), a trans-membrane protein that functions in uptake of cholesterol via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and whose regulation by cellular cholesterol content [21]-[24] appears to be disrupted by expression of C282Y-HFE. Another example of an affected transport protein is provided by the elevated expression of CXCL16 (increased 306-fold), which encodes CXCL16/SR-PSOX, an interferon-γ–regulated chemokine found in both trans-membrane and soluble forms, and can function as a scavenger for oxidized low-density lipoproteins [25]-[27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although disruptions in the maintenance of iron and cholesterol metabolism have been implicated in several cancers, the association between variants in the HFE gene that is associated with cellular iron uptake and cholesterol metabolism has not been studied. The C282Y-HFE variant is a risk factor for different cancers, is known to affect sphingolipid metabolism, and to result in increased cellular iron uptake. The effect of this variant on cholesterol metabolism and its possible relevance to cancer phenotype was investigated using wild type (WT) and C282Y-HFE transfected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of C282Y-HFE in SH-SY5Y cells resulted in a significant increase in total cholesterol as well as increased transcription of a number of genes involved in its metabolism compared to cells expressing WT-HFE. The marked increase in expression of NPC1L1 relative to that of most other genes, was accompanied by a significant increase in expression of NPC1, a protein that functions in cholesterol uptake by cells. Because inhibitors of cholesterol metabolism have been proposed to be beneficial for treating certain cancers, their effect on the viability of C282Y-HFE neuroblastoma cells was ascertained. C282Y-HFE cells were significantly more sensitive than WT-HFE cells to U18666A, an inhibitor of desmosterol Δ24-reductase the enzyme catalyzing the last step in cholesterol biosynthesis. This was not seen for simvastatin, ezetimibe, or a sphingosine kinase inhibitor. These studies indicate that cancers presenting in carriers of the C282Y-HFE allele might be responsive to treatment designed to selectively reduce cholesterol content in their tumor cells.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88724. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088724 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "It has been demonstrated in several studies that NPC1L1-dependent cholesterol transport may be regulated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis [15-17]. At steady state, NPC1L1 proteins are mainly found in endocytic recycling compartment (ERC). "
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    ABSTRACT: Polytopic transmembrane protein, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is localized at the apical membrane of enterocytes and the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. It mediates intestinal cholesterol absorption and prevents extensive loss of cholesterol by transporting biliary cholesterol into hepatocytes. NPC1L1 is a molecular target of ezetimibe, an agent for hypercholesterolemia. Recently, NPC1L1 inhibition has been shown to prevent metabolic disorders such as fatty liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In this review, the identification and characterization of NPC1L1, NPC1L1-dependent cholesterol transport, the relationship with pathogenesis of metabolic disease and its newly introduced function for virus entry are discussed.
    Diabetes & metabolism journal 08/2013; 37(4):240-8. DOI:10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.240
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