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Re: Clitoral anatomy in nulliparous, healthy, premenopausal volunteers using unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

The Journal of Urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 03/2006; 175(2):790-1. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00176-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clitoral or clitoris-urethra-vaginal complex, internal/inner clitoris, clitoral bulbs, are terms that must not be used by gynecologists, urologists, sexologists, sexual medicine experts, etc.

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    ABSTRACT: This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. Clin. Anat., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Clinical Anatomy 11/2012; 26(1). · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction.  A decline in sexual activity has been reported as women age.Aim.  To compare, in young adult and middle-aged women, the clitoral volumetric and vascular modifications during the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, and to analyze their relationship with circulating hormones, nitric oxide levels, and with questionnaires on sexuality, relationship, and depression.Methods.  Fifteen young (18–25 years; Group I), and 16 middle-aged (35–45 years; Group II) eumenorrheic women were submitted, on day 14 of their menstrual cycle, to utero-ovarian and clitoral ultrasonographic analysis, and to color Doppler evaluation of the uterine and dorsal clitoral arteries. On the same day, hormonal parameters and plasma concentrations of nitrites/nitrates were assayed, and the two-factor Italian McCoy female questionnaire and the Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaire were administered.Main Outcomes Measures.  Utero-ovarian and clitoral ultrasonographic analysis, color Doppler evaluation of the uterine and dorsal clitoral arteries; evaluation of hormonal and nitrites/nitrates plasma concentrations; administration of the two-factor Italian McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire and the Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaire.Results.  The plasma levels of estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and nitrites/nitrates were similar in both groups. Neither the ultrasonographic assessment of the clitoral body volume (0.82 ± 0.24 mL vs. 0.73 ± 0.26 mL) nor the Doppler analysis of the dorsal clitoral artery [pulsatility index (PI) = 1.35 ± 0.31 vs. PI = 1.36 ± 0.19] evidenced any significant differences in either Group I or Group II. The two-factor Italian McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire gave the same results in Group I and Group II. The relationship between the different parameters evidenced that the NO2−/NO3− circulating levels are inversely correlated with uterine artery (r = −0.4611; P = 0.008) and dorsal clitoral artery (r = −0.331; P = 0.041) PIs. Furthermore, estradiol resulted inversely correlated with depression (r = −0.332; P = 0.045). The two sections (sexuality and partnership) of Italian McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire were positively correlated (r = 0.849; P < 0.0001) between each other.Conclusions.  In eumenorrheic young adult and middle-aged women, the periovulatory clitoral anatomic and vascular modifications similarly occur. Battaglia C, Nappi RE, Cianciosi A, Busacchi P, Sisti G, Paradisi R, and Venturoli S. Periovulatory morphometric and vascular modifications of the clitoris in young adult and middle-aged women. A pilot study. J Sex Med 2009;6:2707–2714.
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    ABSTRACT: The anatomy of the clitoris is described in human anatomy textbooks. Some researchers have proposal and divulged a new anatomical terminology for the clitoris. This paper is a revision of the anatomical terms proposed by Helen O'Connell, Emmanuele Jannini, and Odile Buisson. Gynecologists, sexual medicine experts, and sexologists should spread certainties for all women, not hypotheses or personal opinions, they should use scientific terminology: clitoral/vaginal/uterine orgasm, G/A/C/U spot orgasm, and female ejaculation, are terms that should not be used by sexologists, women, and mass media. Clitoral bulbs, clitoral or clitoris-urethrovaginal complex, urethrovaginal space, periurethral glans, Halban's fascia erogenous zone, vaginal anterior fornix erogenous zone, genitosensory component of the vagus nerve, and G-spot, are terms used by some sexologists, but they are not accepted or shared by experts in human anatomy. Sexologists should define have sex, make love, the situation in which the orgasm happens in both partners with or without a vaginal intercourse.
    ISRN obstetrics and gynecology 01/2011; 2011:261464.

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