Re: Clitoral Anatomy in Nulliparous, Healthy, Premenopausal Volunteers Using Unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

The Journal of Urology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 03/2006; 175(2):790-1. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00176-X
Source: PubMed


Clitoral or clitoris-urethra-vaginal complex, internal/inner clitoris, clitoral bulbs, are terms that must not be used by gynecologists, urologists, sexologists, sexual medicine experts, etc.

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Available from: Vincenzo Puppo, Apr 22, 2014
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    • "" Laqueur, in 1990, wrote that how Adam, Renaldus Columbus baptized ( " amoris dulcedo " ) in 1559, what he had found in nature: a female penis [20]. To describe the cluster of erectile tissues (i.e., clitoris, vestibular bulbs and pars intermedia, labia minora, and corpus spongiosum of the female urethra) responsible for female orgasm, the correct anatomical term should be the female penis [13] [14] [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The anatomy of the clitoris is described in human anatomy textbooks. Some researchers have proposal and divulged a new anatomical terminology for the clitoris. This paper is a revision of the anatomical terms proposed by Helen O'Connell, Emmanuele Jannini, and Odile Buisson. Gynecologists, sexual medicine experts, and sexologists should spread certainties for all women, not hypotheses or personal opinions, they should use scientific terminology: clitoral/vaginal/uterine orgasm, G/A/C/U spot orgasm, and female ejaculation, are terms that should not be used by sexologists, women, and mass media. Clitoral bulbs, clitoral or clitoris-urethrovaginal complex, urethrovaginal space, periurethral glans, Halban's fascia erogenous zone, vaginal anterior fornix erogenous zone, genitosensory component of the vagus nerve, and G-spot, are terms used by some sexologists, but they are not accepted or shared by experts in human anatomy. Sexologists should define have sex, make love, the situation in which the orgasm happens in both partners with or without a vaginal intercourse.
    ISRN obstetrics and gynecology 09/2011; 2011:261464. DOI:10.5402/2011/261464
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    • "The clitoral bulbs lie between each clitoral crus and the vaginal opening. The clitoral bulbs were previously termed the vestibular bulbs, but are now more accurately named as anatomically they form part of the clitoris (O' Connell et al. 1998, Puppo 2006). They are covered by the bulbospongiosus muscles, which extend from the perineal body, around the vagina and urethra, to the glans clitoris. "
    Ridley's The Vulva, Third Edition, 07/2009: pages 1 - 33; , ISBN: 9781444316681
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    ABSTRACT: We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports), histology and immunohistochemistry. We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available. An extensive review of the current and historical literature was done. The studies reviewed included dissection and microdissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction, histology and immunohistochemical studies. The clitoris is a multiplanar structure with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and via extensive supporting tissue to the mons pubis and labia. Centrally it is attached to the urethra and vagina. Its components include the erectile bodies (paired bulbs and paired corpora, which are continuous with the crura) and the glans clitoris. The glans is a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure that is the only external manifestation of the clitoris. All other components are composed of erectile tissue with the composition of the bulbar erectile tissue differing from that of the corpora. The clitoral and perineal neurovascular bundles are large, paired terminations of the pudendal neurovascular bundles. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami to meet each other and pass along the superior surface of the clitoral body supplying the clitoris. The neural trunks pass largely intact into the glans. These nerves are at least 2 mm in diameter even in infancy. The cavernous or autonomic neural anatomy is microscopic and difficult to define consistently. MRI complements dissection studies and clarifies the anatomy. Clitoral pharmacology and histology appears to parallel those of penile tissue, although the clinical impact is vastly different. Typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris lack detail and include inaccuracies. It is impossible to convey clitoral anatomy in a single diagram showing only 1 plane, as is typically provided in textbooks, which reveal it as a flat structure. MRI provides a multiplanar representation of clitoral anatomy in the live state, which is a major advantage, and complements dissection materials. The work of Kobelt in the early 19th century provides a most comprehensive and accurate description of clitoral anatomy, and modern study provides objective images and few novel findings. The bulbs appear to be part of the clitoris. They are spongy in character and in continuity with the other parts of the clitoris. The distal urethra and vagina are intimately related structures, although they are not erectile in character. They form a tissue cluster with the clitoris. This cluster appears to be the locus of female sexual function and orgasm.
    The Journal of Urology 11/2005; 174(4 Pt 1):1189-95. DOI:10.1097/ · 4.47 Impact Factor
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