While the mitochondrion is known to be a key mediator of apoptosis, there has been little inquiry into the inheritance pattern of mitochondria in patients with cancer. We compared the mtDNA haplotype in patients with prostate and renal cancer to that in controls to determine if there is an association between mitochondrial genotype and cancer.
Haplotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction/digest identification of key polymorphic sites in the mitochondrial genome. A total of 121 and 221 white men with renal and prostate cancer, respectively, were identified following pathological confirmation of cancer, while 246 white controls were selected randomly from a bank of cadaveric organ donor DNA. Statistical analysis was performed and ORs were calculated.
Mitochondrial haplogroup U was a highly significant risk factor for prostate and renal cancer vs controls (16.74% and 20.66% vs 9.35%, Fisher's exact test p = 0.019 and 0.005, respectively). The association remained statistically significant in renal cancer even after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. Haplogroup U carried an OR of 1.95 for prostate cancer and an OR of 2.52 for renal cancer.
The inheritance of mitochondrial haplogroup U is associated with an approximately 2-fold increased risk of prostate cancer and 2.5-fold increased risk of renal cancer in white North American individuals. Therefore, individuals with this mitochondrial haplotype are in a high risk group. Because mitochondrial haplogroup U is found in 9.35% of the white United States population, there are more than 20 million individuals in this high risk group.
"Previous research has shown that the incidence is two to ten times greater in North Americans of African descent when compared to Caucasians and Asians, respectively . In this regard, studies by Booker et al.  have shown that haplogroup U (European origin) is associated with about twice the risk of PC and 2.5 times the risk of renal carcinoma in American individuals having European ancestry. Contrary to this finding, Kim et al.  did not reveal any association between Asian and PC lineages for the Korean population. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of mortality from cancer in Colombian men. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been associated with the risk of PC. Several studies have demonstrated dramatic differences regarding the risk of PC among men from different ethnic backgrounds. The present study was aimed at assessing the relationship between mtDNA haplogroups and PC. The mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment I (HSV-1) was sequenced in a population-based study covering 168 cases (CA) and 140 unrelated healthy individuals as a control group (CG). A total of 92 different mtDNA sequences were found in CA and 59 were found in the CG. According to the geographical origin attributed to each mtDNA haplogroup, 82% of the mtDNA sequences found in both groups were Native Americans (A, B, C, and D). The most frequent was A (41.1%CA-42.1%CG), followed by B (22.0%CA-21.4%CG), C (12.0%CA-11.4%CG), and D (6%CA-10.0%CG). A lower percentage of European haplogroups (U, H, K, J, M, T, and HV) were also found (13.1%CA-12.9%CG), likewise African haplogroups (L0, L1, L2, and L3) (6.5%CA-2.1%CG). There were no statistically significant differences between the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups in CA and the CG in this study.
"common to haplotype U was associated with increased risk of both renal and prostate cancers . e NADH-ubiquinone oxioreductase chain 3 (ND3) substitution mutation at G10398A has been associated with increased breast cancer risk in both African American and Indian women     . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The area of mitochondrial genomics has undergone unprecedented growth over the past several years. With the advent of the age of omics, investigations have reached beyond the nucleus to encompass the close biological communication and finely coordinated interactions between mitochondria and their nuclear cell mate. Application of this holistic approach, to all metabolic interactions within the cell, is providing a more complete understanding of the molecular transformation of the cell from normal to malignant behavior, before histopathological indications are evident. In this review the surging momentum in mitochondrial science, as it relates to cancer, is described in three progressive perspectives: (1) Past: the historical contributions to current directions of research; (2) Present: Contemporary findings, results and approaches to mitochondria and cancer, including the role of next generation sequencing and proteomics; (3) Future: Based on the present body of knowledge, the potential assets and benefits of mitochondrial research are projected into the near future.
"Mitochondrial DNA mutations are present in both coding and non-coding regions and most of them appeared to be homoplasmic in nature(Chatterjee et al., 2006). There is growing evidence that mitochondrial genetic variation has a role in carcinogenesis (Booker et al., 2006). In human malignancies majority of mtDNA mutations occur in D-Loop region, which has been shown to be a " hot spot " for point mutations in many human cancers (Fliss et al., 2000; Penta et al., 2001; Pang et al., 2008; Sharawat et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study mitochondrial D-Loop variations in Iranian prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients were investigated. Tumour samples and corresponding non-cancerous prostate tissue from 40 prostate cancer patients and 40 age-matched BPH patients were collected. The entire mtD-loop region (16024-576) was amplified using the PCR method and products were gel-purified and subjected to direct nucleotide sequencing. A total of 129 variations were found, the most frequent being 263A-G and 310T-C among both BPH and prostate cancer patients. Variation of 309 C-T was significantly more frequent in prostate cancer patients (P value<0.05). Four novel variations were observed on comparison with the MITOMAP database. Novel variations were np16154delT, np366G-A, np389G-A and 56insT. There was no correspondence between the different variations and the age of subjects. Considering that D-loop variations were frequent in both BPH and prostate cancer patients in our study, the fact that both groups had high average age can be a possible contributing factor. D-loop polymorphisms and microsatellite instability can influence cell physiology and result in a benign or malignant phenotype. Significantly higher frequency of 309 C-T variation in cancer patients is a notable finding and must be a focus of attention in future studies.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 08/2012; 13(8):3863-8. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.8.3863 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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