Vitamin D signaling is modulated on multiple levels in health and disease.
ABSTRACT Vitamin D signaling is dependent on the availability and turnover of the active Vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and on the efficiency of VDR transactivation. Activating and inactivating secosteroid metabolizing p450 enzymes, e.g. 25-hydroxylases, 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase, are responsible for ligand availability on the basis of substrate production in the skin and of nutritional intake of precursors. Net availability of active hormone depends on the delivery of substrate and the balance of activating and inactivating enzymes. 1Alpha-hydroxylase is the critical activating enzyme. It is expressed in the kidney for systemic supply and in target tissues for local secosteroid activation. It is upregulated in the kidney by low calcium intake and parathyroid hormone, downregulated by phosphatonins and proinflammatory signal transduction. Transactivation of VDR depends on the correct molecule structure, effective nuclear translocation and the presence of the unliganded heterodimer partner retinoid X-receptor (RXR) and other nuclear cofactors. Rapid Vitamin D-dependent membrane associated effects and consecutive second messenger activation exert an own pattern of gene regulation. A membrane receptor for these effects is hypothesized but not yet identified. Rickets is the long known clinical syndrome of impaired Vitamin D signaling due to Vitamin D3 deficiency. It can be caused by inherited defects of the cascade, nutritional deficits, lack of sunlight exposure, malabsorption and underlying diseases like chronic inflammation. It has been shown during the last decades that many modifiers of Vitamin D signaling are targets of disease in terms of inherited and acquired syndromes and that Vitamin D signaling is modulated at multiple levels and is more complex than mere mechanistic ligand/receptor/DNA interaction.
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ABSTRACT: The potential protective effects of vitamin D against cutaneous carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. The inhibition, by vitamin D, of various cancers in in vitro and in vivo models has triggered detailed investigation of vitamin D effects on neoplastic behavior. Recent studies highlight that such neoplastic features as the tumor microenvironment, angiogenesis, DNA mutagenesis, and apoptosis are all connected to vitamin D metabolic pathways. This review discusses these connections. Vitamin D modulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis via its receptors (VDRs) may have a suppressive effect on skin cancer as some studies suggest. The regulation of multiple tumor signaling pathways by vitamin D may have an implication in cutaneous carcinogenesis and tumor progression to malignancy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Molecular Carcinogenesis 01/2013; · 4.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D and folate are highly UV sensitive, and critical for maintaining health throughout the lifecycle. This study examines whether solar irradiance during the first trimester of pregnancy influences vitamin D receptor (VDR) and nuclear folate gene variant occurrence, and whether affected genes influence late-life biochemical/clinical phenotypes. 228 subjects were examined for periconceptional exposure to solar irradiance, variation in vitamin D/folate genes (polymerase chain reaction - PCR), dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire - FFQ) and important adult biochemical/clinical phenotypes. Periconceptional solar irradiance was associated with VDR-BsmI (p=0.0008(wk7)), TaqI (p=0.0014(wk7)), and EcoRV (p=0.0030(wk6)) variant occurrence between post-conceptional weeks 6-8, a period when ossification begins. Similar effects were detected for other VDR gene polymorphisms. Periconceptional solar irradiance was also associated with 19bp del-DHFR (p=0.0025(wk6)), and to a lesser extent C1420T-SHMT (p=0.0249(wk6)), a folate-critical time during embryogenesis. These same genes were associated with several late-life phenotypes: VDR-BsmI, TaqI and ApaI determined the relationship between dietary vitamin D and both insulin (p<0.0001/BB, 0.0007/tt and 0.0173/AA respectively) and systolic blood pressure (p=0.0290/Bb, 0.0299/Tt and 0.0412/AA respectively), making them important early and late in the lifecycle. While these and other phenotype associations were found for the VDR variants, folate polymorphism associations in later-life were limited to C1420T-SHMT (p=0.0037 and 0.0297 for fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels respectively). We additionally report nutrient-gene relationships with BMI, thiol/folate metabolome, cognition, depression, and hypertension. Furthermore, photoperiod at conception influenced occurrence of VDR-Tru9I and 2R3R-TS genotypes (p=0.0120 and 0.0360 respectively). Findings identify environmental and nutritional agents that may interact to modify gene-phenotype relationships across the lifecycle, offering new insight into human ecology. This includes factors related to both disease aetiology and the evolution of skin pigmentation.Evolution, medicine, and public health. 04/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D supplements have increasingly been used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Historically, effects of the vitamin on the cardiovascular (CV) system have been proposed and demonstrated in the literature, including benefits on serum lipids. Although observational studies support an association between increased serum vitamin D levels and a favorable lipid profile, interventional studies have shown no effects. This review presents and analyzes all the related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in the literature from 1987 to present. A systematic literature search was conducted via MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE and, out of 19 relevant RCTs identified, only one reported benefits of vitamin D supplementation on lipid profile parameters, while the rest showed no effects or even adverse outcomes, which are highlighted by the only meta-analysis in the field. Attempts to explain the paradox of beneficial findings of observational studies versus discouraging results of interventional studies have been made and the most popular suggests that high serum vitamin D concentrations may not be the cause of good health but its outcome instead, as healthy people are more likely to stay outdoors longer and have better eating habits. For definitive answers to be given, large, well-designed RCTs need to be conducted that will take into account and adjust for dietary consumption as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, both of which have been shown to be associated with the CV system. Until then, recommendations for vitamin D supplementation should not change.Atherosclerosis 01/2014; 235(1):130–139. · 3.71 Impact Factor