Predicting physical activity intention and behaviour among children in a longitudinal sample.
ABSTRACT We examined predictors of leisure-time physical activity intention and behaviour in children, and the potential direct and moderating effects of gender and ethnicity. Participants were 364 (230 Asian; 134 Caucasian) 9-11-year-old children who completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and physical activity behaviour (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children) across three, 3-month intervals (i.e., two prediction time-periods) in Canada. The TPB explained 35-50% of the variance in physical activity behaviour and 74-76% of the variance in intention using structural equation modelling. An autoregressive longitudinal path model showed that the TPB predicted changes in physical activity and physical activity predicted changes in TPB constructs (p<.05). Overall, intention and perceived behavioural control were significant (p<.05) contributors to the direct prediction of behaviour and subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significant (p<.05) predictors of intention. Gender did not show a robust relationship with physical activity or intention, but the effect of ethnicity on physical activity was mediated through perceived behavioural control (Asians less active than Caucasians). Finally, gender and ethnicity did not moderate TPB and physical activity relations (p<.05). These data suggest that childhood may be a formative stage for the development of physical activity cognitions and that promoting physical activity in children may require normative and control-based intervention.
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ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children along with accompanying comorbidities has prompted an early acknowledgement of a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teacher-centered, school-based intervention on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and health behavior in elementary school children. 935 first-and second-grade children in southwest Germany provided valid data at baseline and follow-up. Trained technicians measured height and weight along with blood pressure, cholesterol, and intra-abdominal fat to determine CVD risk. Parent questionnaires were used to assess children's health behavior. Within one year CVD risk declined in the intervention group, particularly due to an attenuation of the age-related increase in mean arterial pressure. The age-related decline in habitual sports participation was attenuated, and children in the intervention groups displayed higher odds of playing outside. Further, the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages declined in the intervention group, and TV time remained stable, while it increased in the control group. These results indicate that a teacher-centered intervention positively affects health behavior and CVD risk. The incorporation of the intervention by the classroom-teacher should allow for a sustainable participation, which may result in more pronounced effects over time.08/2013; 2013:8 Pages. DOI:10.1155/2013/513183
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ABSTRACT: Purpose. To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects of weight status. Methods. A subsample of 427 overweight and 133 obese participants (n = 560), completed a self-administered web-based questionnaire on health and PA behaviors, including assessment of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention to participate in regular PA. Structural equation models were examined using AMOS 17.0. Results. Overall, 62% of the variance in intention was accounted for by attitude, subjective norm, and PBC; whereas 44% of the variance in PA behavior was explained by PBC and intention. When examining the TPB separately in overweight and obese subsamples, 66% and 56% of the variance for PA intention was explained for overweight and obese subsamples, respectively; and 38% and 56% of the variance in PA behavior were accounted for in the overweight and obese subsamples. Overall, attitude was the strongest predictor of PA intention, whereas PBC was the strongest predictor for PA behavior. Intention was not predictive of PA behavior. Conclusions. These results provide partial support for the utility of TPB in explaining PA behavior in a sample of overweight and obese adolescents. In particular, strong associations regarding attitude and PBC were evident across each subsample. These findings have implications for tailoring PA programs in this population.Health Education & Behavior 09/2012; 40(4). DOI:10.1177/1090198112455642
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ABSTRACT: Different models of school sport delivery, such as intramurals (IM), may attract students who are less skilled or less interested in traditional varsity sports (VS). The purpose of this study was to examine whether school sport delivery models (IM or VS) differentially influence middle school students' motivations to participate in school sports. Using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as a conceptual framework, participants in school sponsored sport programs (n = 2,021) from four middle schools (2 IM; 2 VS) completed a school sport participation questionnaire at the beginning and end of a school year. Results suggest that intentions to participate in sport either increase or are maintained through participation in school sports, and the intentions of non-participants decrease over time. A singular model of school sport that only includes highly competitive varsity sports may limit opportunities for children to play sport and diminish their intentions for enduring sport participation.International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing 01/2012; 12(3/4):159 - 179. DOI:10.1504/IJSMM.2012.052665