Predicting physical activity intention and behavior among children in a longitudinal sample

University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
Social Science & Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.89). 06/2006; 62(12):3146-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.11.051
Source: PubMed


We examined predictors of leisure-time physical activity intention and behaviour in children, and the potential direct and moderating effects of gender and ethnicity. Participants were 364 (230 Asian; 134 Caucasian) 9-11-year-old children who completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and physical activity behaviour (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children) across three, 3-month intervals (i.e., two prediction time-periods) in Canada. The TPB explained 35-50% of the variance in physical activity behaviour and 74-76% of the variance in intention using structural equation modelling. An autoregressive longitudinal path model showed that the TPB predicted changes in physical activity and physical activity predicted changes in TPB constructs (p<.05). Overall, intention and perceived behavioural control were significant (p<.05) contributors to the direct prediction of behaviour and subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significant (p<.05) predictors of intention. Gender did not show a robust relationship with physical activity or intention, but the effect of ethnicity on physical activity was mediated through perceived behavioural control (Asians less active than Caucasians). Finally, gender and ethnicity did not moderate TPB and physical activity relations (p<.05). These data suggest that childhood may be a formative stage for the development of physical activity cognitions and that promoting physical activity in children may require normative and control-based intervention.

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    • "As lifestyle patterns are established at a young age and health behavior has been shown to track into adulthood [8], primary prevention programs that promote sufficient PA and healthy eating patterns at an early age are warranted. Children and adolescents have also been shown to be more responsive to health promotion programs [9], which would result in a higher success rate of specific interventions compared to adults who have difficulties in adopting and adhering to a healthy lifestyle [10]. School-based intervention programs have become popular as children spend a considerable amount of time in schools, and a large number of children from various cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds can be reached [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obese children along with accompanying comorbidities has prompted an early acknowledgement of a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teacher-centered, school-based intervention on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and health behavior in elementary school children. 935 first-and second-grade children in southwest Germany provided valid data at baseline and follow-up. Trained technicians measured height and weight along with blood pressure, cholesterol, and intra-abdominal fat to determine CVD risk. Parent questionnaires were used to assess children's health behavior. Within one year CVD risk declined in the intervention group, particularly due to an attenuation of the age-related increase in mean arterial pressure. The age-related decline in habitual sports participation was attenuated, and children in the intervention groups displayed higher odds of playing outside. Further, the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages declined in the intervention group, and TV time remained stable, while it increased in the control group. These results indicate that a teacher-centered intervention positively affects health behavior and CVD risk. The incorporation of the intervention by the classroom-teacher should allow for a sustainable participation, which may result in more pronounced effects over time.
    08/2013; 2013(3):8 Pages. DOI:10.1155/2013/513183
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    • "presence of factors that hinder or enhance behavior) [88]. These concepts are captured in the Child Intention Questionnaire (CIQ), a questionnaire that is research-administered every visit and asks children about their intentions and behaviours for engaging in physical activity, self-perception, attitude towards physical activity and nutrition and behavioural control [89,90]. Children self-identify themselves by identifying a picture that best describes them. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Childhood obesity gives rise to health complications including impaired musculoskeletal development that associates with increased risk of fractures. Prevention and treatment programs should focus on nutrition education, increasing physical activity (PA), reducing sedentary behaviours, and should monitor bone mass as a component of body composition. To ensure lifestyle changes are sustained in the home environment, programs need to be family-centered. To date, no study has reported on a family-centered lifestyle intervention for obese children that aims to not only ameliorate adiposity, but also support increases in bone and lean muscle mass. Furthermore, it is unknown if programs of such nature can also favorably change eating and activity behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a 1 y family-centered lifestyle intervention, focused on both nutrient dense foods including increased intakes of milk and alternatives, plus total and weight-bearing PA, on body composition and bone mass in overweight or obese children. Methods/design The study design is a randomized controlled trial for overweight or obese children (6–8 y). Participants are randomized to control, standard treatment (StTx) or modified treatment (ModTx). This study is family-centred and includes individualized counselling sessions on nutrition, PA and sedentary behaviors occurring 4 weeks after baseline for 5 months, then at the end of month 8. The control group receives counselling at the end of the study. All groups are measured at baseline and every 3 months for the primary outcome of changes in body mass index Z-scores. At each visit blood is drawn and children complete a researcher-administered behavior questionnaire and muscle function testing. Changes from baseline to 12 months in body fat (% and mass), waist circumference, lean body mass, bone (mineral content, mineral density, size and volumetric density), dietary intake, self-reported PA and sedentary behaviour are examined. Discussion This family-centered theory-based study permits for biochemical and physiological assessments. This trial will assess the effectiveness of the intervention at changing lifestyle behaviours by decreasing adiposity while enhancing lean and bone mass. If successful, the intervention proposed offers new insights for the management or treatment of childhood obesity. Trial registration, NCT01290016.
    BMC Public Health 04/2013; 13(1):383. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-383 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "To minimize response burden, short measures of core TPB constructs (Hagger et al., 2001; Rhodes, Macdonald, & McKay, 2006; Spence et al., 2010) were used in the survey protocol, which included attitude, subjective norm, PBC, and intention. These published measures were developed in English-speaking countries (e.g., United Kingdom, Canada) with similar age groups. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects of weight status. Methods: A subsample of 427 overweight and 133 obese participants (n = 560), completed a self-administered web-based questionnaire on health and PA behaviors, including assessment of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention to participate in regular PA. Structural equation models were examined using AMOS 17.0. Results: Overall, 62% of the variance in intention was accounted for by attitude, subjective norm, and PBC; whereas 44% of the variance in PA behavior was explained by PBC and intention. When examining the TPB separately in overweight and obese subsamples, 66% and 56% of the variance for PA intention was explained for overweight and obese subsamples, respectively; and 38% and 56% of the variance in PA behavior were accounted for in the overweight and obese subsamples. Overall, attitude was the strongest predictor of PA intention, whereas PBC was the strongest predictor for PA behavior. Intention was not predictive of PA behavior. Conclusions: These results provide partial support for the utility of TPB in explaining PA behavior in a sample of overweight and obese adolescents. In particular, strong associations regarding attitude and PBC were evident across each subsample. These findings have implications for tailoring PA programs in this population.
    Health Education & Behavior 09/2012; 40(4). DOI:10.1177/1090198112455642 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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