Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
ABSTRACT [corrected] Lobradimil is a synthetic bradykinin analog that rapidly and transiently increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was studied in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors in a phase II trial, the primary endpoints of which were to estimate the response rate and time to disease progression.
Patients were stratified by histology into five cohorts: brainstem glioma, high-grade glioma, low-grade glioma, medullobastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and ependymoma. Patients received carboplatin adaptively dosed to achieve a target AUC of 3.5 mg min/ml per day (7 mg.min/ml/cycle) intravenously over 15 min on 2 consecutive days and lobradimil 600 ng/kg ideal body weight/day on 2 consecutive days each 28 day cycle.
Forty-one patients, age 2-19 years, were enrolled; 38 patients, including 1 patient ultimately determined to have atypical neurocytoma, were evaluable for response. No objective responses were observed in the brainstem glioma (n=12) and high-grade glioma (n = 9) cohorts, although two patients with high-grade glioma had prolonged disease stabilization (>6 months). The study was closed for commercial reasons prior to achieving the accrual goals for the ependymoma (n = 8), medulloblastoma/PNET (n = 6) and low-grade glioma (n = 2) cohorts, although responses were observed in 1 patient with PNET and 2 patients with ependymoma.
The combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was inactive in childhood high-grade gliomas and brainstem gliomas.
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ABSTRACT: Kinins are generated within inflammatory tissue microenvironments, where they exert diverse functions, including cell proliferation, leukocyte activation, cell migration, endothelial cell activation and nociception. These pleiotropic functions depend on signaling through two cross talking receptors, the constitutively expressed kinin receptor 2 (B2R) and the inducible kinin receptor 1 (B1R). We have reviewed evidence, which supports the concept that kinin receptors, especially kinin receptor 1, are promising targets for cancer therapy, since (1) many tumor cells express aberrantly high levels of these receptors; (2) some cancers produce kinins and use them as autocrine factors to stimulate their growth; (3) activation of kinin receptors leads to activation of macrophages, dendritic cells and other cells from the tumor microenvironment; (4) kinins have pro-angiogenic properties; (5) kinin receptors have been implicated in cancer migration, invasion and metastasis; and (6) Selective antagonists for either B1R or B2R have shown anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-migratory properties. The multiple cross talks between kinin receptors and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) as well as its implications for targeting KKS or RAS for the treatment of malignancies are also discussed. It is expected that B1R antagonists would interfere less with housekeeping functions and therefore would be attractive compounds to treat selected types of cancer. Reliable clinical studies are needed to establish the translatability of these data to human settings and the usefulness of kinin receptor antagonists.Cancer letters 12/2013; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Currently, there are many novel drugs that belong to class III or IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, showing low bioavailability. Tight junction (TJ) modulation offers an approach to increase bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds. Furthermore, some diseases are accompanied by disturbed barrier function or TJ dysregulation and thus represent a second application for TJ modulators. Areas covered: This review contains a summary of three different TJ modulators: AT1002, PN159 and labradimil. Within this summary, the authors provide a description of their effects on TJs, their adverse effects and their success in clinical trials. Furthermore, the authors present the current understanding of TJ regulation and highlight opportunities to develop new TJ modulators; they also review the problems that might occur. Expert opinion: The development of new mechanism-based (MB) TJ modulators is a very promising field of research. MB approaches are expected to have the best future prospects. Further elucidation of signaling pathways and TJ regulation will be necessary for advancing MB TJ modulator research.Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 02/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Brainstem gliomas (BSG) are relatively rare tumors of which recurrent pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (RPDIPG) comprise a distinct group. Numerous trials have been conducted on RPDIPG, none of which have resulted in identifying any proven pharmacological treatment benefit. This study included 40 patients diagnosed with different types of BSG, but it was decided to describe first the encouraging results in the most challenging group of RPDIPG. This single-arm phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the combination of antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 (ANP) in patients with RPDIPG. Seventeen patients (median age 8.8 years) were enrolled, and all were diagnosed with RPDIPG. ANP was administered intravenously daily. Efficacy analyses were conducted in this group of patients. In this group, complete responses were observed in 6 % of patients, partial responses in 23.5 %, and stable disease in 11.8 %. Six-month progression-free survival was 35.3 %. One-year overall survival was 29.4 %, 2 years 11.8 %, and 5, 10, and 15 years 5.9 %. One patient with DIPG is alive over 15 years post-treatment. Grade 3 and higher toxicities including hypokalemia and fatigue occurred in 6 %, hypernatremia in 18 %, fatigue and urinary incontinence in 6 %, and somnolence in 12 %. In a single patient, grade 4 hypernatremia occurred when he was on mechanical ventilation. He was disconnected from the ventilator and died from brain tumor according to the attending physician. Responding patients experienced improved quality of life. The results suggest that ANP shows efficacy and acceptable tolerability profile in patients with RPDIPG.Child s Nervous System 04/2014; · 1.24 Impact Factor