Effects of baclofen on cocaine self-administration: opioid- and nonopioid-dependent volunteers.
ABSTRACT Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that GABAB receptor agonists selectively decrease cocaine use. The behavioral mechanism for the interaction between baclofen and cocaine in humans is not known, nor have its effects been characterized in individuals dependent on both cocaine and methadone. The objective of this study is to determine how maintenance on baclofen influences smoked cocaine's reinforcing and subjective effects, mood and cocaine craving prior to and after the initiation of cocaine use in cocaine-dependent volunteers with and without concurrent opioid dependence. Nontreatment-seeking volunteers (10 nonopioid dependent; seven methadone maintained), residing on an in-patient research unit for 21 days, were maintained on each baclofen dose (0, 30, 60 mg po) for 7 days. A smoked cocaine dose-response curve (0, 12, 25, 50 mg) was determined twice: on days 3-4 and days 6-7 of each baclofen maintenance condition. Cocaine sessions began with a sample trial, when participants smoked the cocaine dose available that session, and five choice trials, when participants chose between smoking the available cocaine dose or receiving one 5 dollars merchandise voucher. The results show that in the nonmethadone group, baclofen (60 mg) decreased self-administration of a low cocaine dose (12 mg). In the methadone group, baclofen decreased craving for cocaine. In both groups, baclofen decreased cocaine's effects on heart rate. Baclofen did not alter cocaine's robust subjective effects (eg 'High,' 'Stimulated') for either group. The results from this laboratory study appear consistent with clinical evidence showing that baclofen decreases cocaine use in nonopioid-dependent patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. The distinct pattern of effects in methadone-maintained participants suggests baclofen may not be effective in opioid-dependent cocaine users.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Margaret Haney, Apr 18, 2014
- SourceAvailable from: Cyril GoudetPharmacology, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0222-9
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ABSTRACT: To update clinicians on the latest in evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders (SUD) and non-substance use disorders among adults and suggest how these treatments can be combined into an evidence-based process that enhances treatment effectiveness in comorbid patients. Articles were extracted from Pubmed using the search terms "dual diagnosis," "comorbidity" and "co-occurring" and were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness for pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments of comorbidity. Twenty-four research reviews and 43 research trials were reviewed. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that antidepressants prescribed to improve substance-related symptoms among patients with mood and anxiety disorders are either not highly effective or involve risk due to high side-effect profiles or toxicity. Second generation antipsychotics are more effective for treatment of schizophrenia and comorbid substance abuse and current evidence suggests clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone are among the best. Clozapine appears to be the most effective of the antipsychotics for reducing alcohol, cocaine and cannabis abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Motivational interviewing has robust support as a highly effective psychotherapy for establishing a therapeutic alliance. This finding is critical since retention in treatment is essential for maintaining effectiveness. Highly structured therapy programs that integrate intensive outpatient treatments, case management services and behavioral therapies such as Contingency Management (CM) are most effective for treatment of severe comorbid conditions. Creative combinations of psychotherapies, behavioral and pharmacological interventions offer the most effective treatment for comorbidity. Intensity of treatment must be increased for severe comorbid conditions such as the schizophrenia/cannabis dependence comorbidity due to the limitations of pharmacological treatments.Addictive behaviors 01/2012; 37(1):11-24. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.09.010 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and high vulnerability to relapse. Overall, cocaine remains one of the most used illicit drugs in the world. Given the difficulty of achieving sustained recovery, pharmacotherapy of cocaine addiction remains one of the most important clinical challenges. Recent advances in neurobiology, brain imaging and clinical trials suggest that certain medications show promise in the treatment of cocaine addiction. The pharmacotherapeutic approaches for cocaine dependence include medications able to target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors, affect different neurotransmitter systems (i.e. noradrenergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and opioidergic pathways), and modulate neurological processes. The systematic reviews concerning the pharmacological treatment of cocaine dependence appear to indicate controversial findings and inconclusive results. The aim of future studies should be to identify the effective medications matching the specific needs of patients with specific characteristics, abandoning the strategies extended to the entire population of cocaine dependent patients. In the present review we summarize the current pharmacotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of cocaine dependence with a focus on the new patents.05/2011; 6(2):146-60. DOI:10.2174/157488911795933893