Liang M, Zhou Y, Jiang T, Liu Z, Tian L, Liu H et al. Widespread functional disconnectivity in schizophrenia with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroreport 17: 209-213

National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
Neuroreport (Impact Factor: 1.52). 03/2006; 17(2):209-13. DOI: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000198434.06518.b8
Source: PubMed


Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the functional connectivity throughout the entire brain in schizophrenia. The abnormalities in functional connectivity were identified by comparing the correlation coefficients of each pair of 116 brain regions between 15 patients and 15 controls. Then, the global distribution of the abnormal functional connectivities was examined. Experimental results indicated, in general, a decreased functional connectivity in schizophrenia during rest, and such abnormalities were widely distributed throughout the entire brain rather than restricted to a few specific brain regions. The results provide a quantitative support for the hypothesis that schizophrenia may arise from the disrupted functional integration of widespread brain areas.

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    • "Besides DMN, investigation of other networks also revealed altered functional connectivity between brain regions (Liang et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2008a, 2008b). For instance, decreased functional connectivity among insula, prefrontal lobe and temporal lobe was observed along with increased connectivity from many cerebral cortical regions toward cerebellum (Liang et al., 2006). The introduction of graph theoretical approaches applied to the brain has allowed quantitative analysis of local and global network properties derived from functional and structural brain imaging (Bullmore and Sporns, 2009; Lynall et al., 2010; Sporns, 2010; Supekar et al., 2008; van den Heuvel et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: A disturbance in the integration of information during mental processing has been implicated in schizophrenia, possibly due to faulty communication within and between brain regions. Graph theoretic measures allow quantification of functional brain networks. Functional networks are derived from correlations between time courses of brain regions. Group differences between SZ and control groups have been reported for functional network properties, but the potential of such measures to classify individual cases has been little explored. We tested whether the network measure of betweenness centrality could classify persons with schizophrenia and normal controls. Functional networks were constructed for 19 schizophrenic patients and 29 non-psychiatric controls based on resting state functional MRI scans. The betweenness centrality of each node, or fraction of shortest-paths that pass through it, was calculated in order to characterize the centrality of the different regions. The nodes with high betweenness centrality agreed well with hub nodes reported in previous studies of structural and functional networks. Using a linear support vector machine algorithm, the schizophrenia group was differentiated from non-psychiatric controls using the ten nodes with the highest betweenness centrality. The classification accuracy was around 80%, and stable against connectivity thresholding. Better performance was achieved when using the ranks as feature space as opposed to the actual values of betweenness centrality. Overall, our findings suggest that changes in functional hubs are associated with schizophrenia, reflecting a variation of the underlying functional network and neuronal communications. In addition, a specific network property, betweenness centrality, can classify persons with SZ with a high level of accuracy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Schizophrenia Research 08/2015; 168(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.08.011 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Several studies observe a reduction in overall strength of functional connectivity in schizophrenia (Argyelan et al., 2013; Bassett et al., 2012; Lynall et al., 2010), while both increased (Skudlarski et al., 2010; Whitfield-Gabrieli et al., 2009) and decreased (Bluhm et al., 2007; Liang et al., 2006) connectivity involving different regional connections are noted across the brain (Karbasforoushan and Woodward, 2012; Pettersson-Yeo et al., 2011; Rubinov and Bullmore, 2013). The presence of both hyper-and hypoconnectivity involving different regional connections (Guo et al., 2013; Skudlarski et al., 2010; Venkataraman et al., 2012; Woodward et al., 2012) indicates a large diversity in the distribution of connectivity across the functional links in schizophrenia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Spatial variation in connectivity is an integral aspect of the brain's architecture. In the absence of this variability, the brain may act as a single homogenous entity without regional specialization. In this study, we investigate the variability in functional links categorized on the basis of the presence of direct structural paths (primary) or indirect paths mediated by one (secondary) or more (tertiary) brain regions ascertained by diffusion tensor imaging. We quantified the variability in functional connectivity using an unbiased estimate of unpredictability (functional connectivity entropy) in a neuropsychiatric disorder where structure-function relationship is considered to be abnormal; 34 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy controls underwent DTI and resting state functional MRI scans. Less than one-third (27.4% in patients, 27.85% in controls) of functional links between brain regions were regarded as direct primary links on the basis of DTI tractography, while the rest were secondary or tertiary. The most significant changes in the distribution of functional connectivity in schizophrenia occur in indirect tertiary paths with no direct axonal linkage in both early (P = 0.0002, d = 1.46) and late (P = 1 × 10(-17) , d = 4.66) stages of schizophrenia, and are not altered by the severity of symptoms, suggesting that this is an invariant feature of this illness. Unlike those with early stage illness, patients with chronic illness show some additional reduction in the distribution of connectivity among functional links that have direct structural paths (P = 0.08, d = 0.44). Our findings address a critical gap in the literature linking structure and function in schizophrenia, and demonstrate for the first time that the abnormal state of functional connectivity preferentially affects structurally unconstrained links in schizophrenia. It also raises the question of a continuum of dysconnectivity ranging from less direct (structurally unconstrained) to more direct (structurally constrained) brain pathways underlying the progressive clinical staging and persistence of schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/hbm.22932 · 5.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Recent MRI studies have provided further evidence for this opinion [6] [7] [8] . "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is hypothesized to arise from disrupted brain connectivity. This "dysconnectivity hypothesis" has generated interest in discovering whether there is anatomical and functional dysconnectivity between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other brain regions, and how this dysconnectivity is linked to the impaired cognitive functions and aberrant behaviors of schizophrenia. Critical advances in neuroimaging technologies, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), make it possible to explore these issues. DTI affords the possibility to explore anatomical connectivity in the human brain in vivo and fMRI can be used to make inferences about functional connections between brain regions. In this review, we present major advances in the understanding of PFC anatomical and functional dysconnectivity and their implications in schizophrenia. We then briefly discuss future prospects that need to be explored in order to move beyond simple mapping of connectivity changes to elucidate the neuronal mechanisms underlying schizophrenia.
    Neuroscience Bulletin 03/2015; 31(2). DOI:10.1007/s12264-014-1502-8 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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