Kinetics of cerebral amyloid angiopathy progression in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease.
ABSTRACT Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), the deposition of cerebrovascular beta-amyloid (Abeta) in the walls of arterial vessels, has been implicated in hemorrhagic stroke and is present in most cases of Alzheimer disease. Previous studies of the progression of CAA in humans and animal models have been limited to the comparison of pathological tissue from different brains at single time points. Our objective was to visualize in real time the initiation and progression of CAA in Tg2576 mice by multiphoton microscopy through cranial windows. Affected vessels were labeled by methoxy-X04, a fluorescent dye that selectively binds cerebrovascular beta-amyloid and plaques. With serial imaging sessions spaced at weekly intervals, we were able to observe the earliest appearance of CAA in leptomeningeal arteries as multifocal deposits of band-like Abeta. Over subsequent imaging sessions, we were able to identify growth of these deposits (propagation), as well as appearance of new bands (additional initiation events). Statistical modeling of the data suggested that as the extent of CAA progressed in this vascular bed, there was increased prevalence of propagation over initiation. During the early phases of CAA development, the overall pathology burden progressed at a rate of 0.35% of total available vessel area per day (95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.4%). The consistent rate of disease progression implies that this model is amenable to investigations of therapeutic interventions.
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ABSTRACT: Vascular cognitive impairment defines alterations in cognition, ranging from subtle deficits to full-blown dementia, attributable to cerebrovascular causes. Often coexisting with Alzheimer's disease, mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. Central to the disease mechanism is the crucial role that cerebral blood vessels play in brain health, not only for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but also for the trophic signaling that inextricably links the well-being of neurons and glia to that of cerebrovascular cells. This review will examine how vascular damage disrupts these vital homeostatic interactions, focusing on the hemispheric white matter, a region at heightened risk for vascular damage, and on the interplay between vascular factors and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, preventative and therapeutic prospects will be examined, highlighting the importance of midlife vascular risk factor control in the prevention of late-life dementia.Neuron 11/2013; 80(4):844-866. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.10.008 · 15.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a protein conformational disorder characterized by two major neuropathological features: extracellular accumulations of amyloid-β peptides in the form of plaques and intracellular tangles, consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Several morphological and functional changes are associated with these lesions in the diseased brain, such as dendritic and synaptic alterations, as well as microglial and astroglial recruitment and their activation. The availability of transgenic mouse models that mimic key aspects of the disease in conjunction with recent advances in two-photon imaging facilitate the study of fundamental aspects of AD pathogenesis and allow for longitudinally monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Here, we review the ambitious efforts to understand the relationship between the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD and their associated structural and functional abnormalities by means of in vivo two-photon imaging.Frontiers in Psychiatry 04/2012; 3:26. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00026
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ABSTRACT: Previous clinical studies have documented a close relationship between cerebrovascular disease and risk of Alzheimer's disease. We examined possible mechanistic interactions through use of experimental stroke models in a transgenic mouse model of β-amyloid deposition (APPswe/PS1dE9). Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, we observed a rapid increase in amyloid plaque burden in the region surrounding the infarction. In human tissue samples, however, we were unable to detect a localized increase in amyloid burden adjacent to cerebral infarcts. To resolve this discrepancy, we generated cerebral microstrokes in amyloid precursor protein mouse models with the photosensitive dye Rose bengal, and monitored plaque formation in real time using multiphoton microscopy. We observed a striking increase in the number of new plaques and amyloid angiopathy in the area immediately surrounding the infarcted area; however, the effect was transient, potentially resolving the discord between mouse and human tissue. We did not detect changes in candidate proteins related to β-amyloid generation or degradation such as β-amyloid-converting enzyme, amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, neprylisin or insulin-degrading enzyme. Together, these results demonstrate that strokes can trigger accelerated amyloid deposition, most likely through interference with amyloid clearance pathways. Additionally, this study indicates that focal ischaemia provides an experimental paradigm in which to study the mechanisms of plaque seeding and growth.Brain 11/2011; 134(Pt 12):3697-707. DOI:10.1093/brain/awr300 · 10.23 Impact Factor