Treatment of atrophic mandibular fractures based on the degree of atrophy--experience with different plating systems: a retrospective study.

Clinic for Cranio and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Vienna Medical School, General Hospital, Vienna, Austria.
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.28). 03/2006; 64(2):230-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.joms.2005.10.025
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of fractures of the atrophic mandible based on the degree of atrophy and treatment by different plating systems.
Thirty patients with 40 fractures of atrophic mandibles were treated by open reduction and internal fixation at our department between 1994 and 2001. Twelve fractures occurred in Class I (between 15- and 20-mm bone height), 10 fractures in Class II (between 10 and 15 mm), and 18 fractures in Class III atrophy (<10 mm). The profile heights of plating systems used for stabilization varied from 0.5 to 2.2 mm and were applied with an intraoral (n = 37) and extraoral (n = 3) approach.
In 36 fractures, bone healing was uneventful. Major complications (loose hardware or nonunion) occurred in 4 fractures: 2 in Class II and 2 in Class III atrophy. Major complications were observed with 1.4-mm (n = 3) and 2.2-mm (n = 1) plates. Minor complications (infections or dehiscence) were observed in 6 fractures: 3 in Class II and 3 in Class III atrophy. Hypesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve was present 1 week and 1 year postoperatively in 39 and 16 fractures, respectively.
Treatment of atrophic mandible fractures should be based on the degree of atrophy. More rigid fixation may be necessary in mandibles with less than 15 mm bone height.

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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to report the outcome of patients with atrophic mandible fractures. Atrophic mandible fractures in 11 patients (7 females and 4 males) were approached with a transcervical incision, and bone segments were stabilized with 2.7-mm reconstruction titanium plates and locking screws placed at the lateral border of the mandible. In 6 of the 11 cases, autogenous cancellous bone was used to repair a continuity defect or to augment the vertical height of the bone in the region of the fracture(s). No major intraoperative or postoperative complications were encountered in any patient. Two patients presented with postoperative infections that resolved with incision-drainage and antibiotics, and removal or replacement of the reconstruction plates or the bone grafts was not required. Treatment of atrophic mandible fractures can be performed safely and effectively with reconstruction plates, with or without bone grafting. The most conservative and predictable treatment in the long term is the definitive reconstructive surgical procedure to restore form and immediate function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.oooo.2015.01.016
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    ABSTRACT: Aim. Closed treatment of atrophic mandible fractures often results in malunion, pseudoarthrosis and pain. Open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF) is still indicated for displaced atrophic mandible fractures. The Authors report a treatment protocol that allows to gain the best results using reconstruction plates, autologous bone grafting and free fibula flap reconstruction when necessary. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 15 patients with atrophic mandible fractures who underwent treatment between 2007 and 2011. 7 cases did not receive any treatment because of their general condition, while the others 8 were surgically managed by external approach. In all cases load-bearing osteosynthesis plates with locking screws were used; in 2 of them contextual bone grafts were performed; in 1 case mandible reconstruction needed harvesting a free fibula flap. Results. In 6 out of 8 cases complete functional and morphological restoration were obtained without any major complication. In 1 case suppurative infection and necrosis of the bone graft occurred, which made necessary its removing, leaving in situ only the reconstruction plate. In another case, during the first year after surgical treatment, atrophic mandible resorption occurred from one angle to the other, resulting in loss of the anchoring reconstruction plate. Conclusions. ORIF is the gold standard procedure for the of atrophic mandible fractures, because it guarantees best morpho-functional outcomes and predictability. Nevertheless the Authors suggest contextual bone grafting in case of substance loss, or a poor quality bone or for dental implant surgery and free fibula flap in selected cases.
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