Prospective study of perioperative factors predicting hypocalcemia after thyroid and parathyroid surgery
ABSTRACT To identify whether perioperative 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D or parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels will predict the development of hypocalcemia after thyroid and parathyroid surgery.
The study included 103 patients who underwent thyroid or parathyroid surgery between 2002 and 2004, with a comparison of the patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy (TL; n = 34), total thyroidectomy (TT; n = 27), parathyroid adenoma excision (PAE; n = 34), and subtotal parathyroidectomy for hyperplasia (SP; n = 8).
Preoperative 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, number of patients requiring calcium replacement, and postoperative PTH and calcium levels.
No patients in the TL or PAE group developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required calcium replacement. Six patients (22%) in the TT group and 3 patients (38%) in the SP group required calcium replacement for clinically significant hypocalcemia (P<.001). All patients who required calcium replacement had PTH levels of less than 15 pg/mL (1.6 pmol/L) 8 hours after surgery. Among the patients with postoperative PTH levels of less than 15 pg/mL (1.6 pmol/L) 8 hours after surgery, no patients in the PAE group required calcium replacement, compared with 75% of patients in the TT and SP groups (P<.001). The patients in the TT group had significantly lower postoperative calcium levels than those in the TL (P<.001) or the PAE (P<.005) group. The patients in the TL group reached stable calcium levels significantly earlier than those in the other groups (15.8 hours after surgery; P<.05). There was no relationship between preoperative 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and postoperative calcium levels.
Preoperative 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were not predictive of postoperative calcium levels. Patients who undergo PAE or TL are at extremely low risk for requiring calcium replacement. Patients who undergo TT or SP with 8-hour postoperative PTH levels greater than or equal to 15 pg/mL (1.6 pmol/L) are at low risk for developing postoperative hypocalcemia, whereas those with PTH levels less than 15 pg/mL (1.6 pmol/L) have a high risk of developing hypocalcemia.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the clinicopathological risk factors and reliable biochemical predictors of the development of hypocalcemic symptoms after total thyroidectomy on the basis of serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels measured 1 hour after surgery, a prospective study was performed on 817 patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND) due to well-differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the correlations between hypocalcemic symptom development and clinicopathological factors. And the predictability for hypocalcemic symptom development of intact PTH cut-offs (<10 pg/mL and <20 pg/mL, resp.) according to serum calcium level subgroup was analyzed. Female gender (P < 0.001) was the only independent risk factor for hypocalcemic symptom development in multivariate regression analysis. The negative predictive value (NPV) of intact PTH, signifying nondevelopment of hypocalcemic symptoms, was higher than the positive predictive value (PPV) which signified development of hypocalcemic symptoms. In addition, when we applied the different adoption of the intact PTH cut-off according to serum calcium level, we could obtain more increased NPVs. A female gender and the application of more specific cut-offs for intact PTH according to the serum calcium levels measured 1 hour after surgery may help the patients to be more safely discharged.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: After thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia is the most significant complication for clinicians. In this study, we investigated the factors associated with development of hypocalcaemia after thyroidectomy. We investigated the patients prospectively for age, gender, preoperative diagnosis, hormonal status, operative time, operating surgeon, existence of parathyroid gland injury at the operation, parathyroid gland auto-transplantation, preoperative use of anti-thyroid drugs and amount of bleeding at the operation. After operation in 1 and 2 days, serum calcium and phosphor, and in the 1 day parathyroid hormone values were evaluated. The chi-square test was applied in the analysis of categorical variables. Logistic regression model was used to determine the risk of hypocalcaemia in the univariate analysis. Hypocalcaemia developed in 47 of 196 patients. Female gender, preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer and toxic nodular goitre, <3cm nodule size, parathyroid injury and auto-transplantation and low vitamin D levels were factors found to be associated with hypocalcaemia in the Logistic regression analysis. The factors associated with hypocalcaemia were defined to be "gender, preoperative diagnosis, parathyroid gland injury, nodule size and vitamin D deficiency", it is a multifactorial problem and it would not be proper to define a few etiological factors.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the role of preoperative serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D as predictor of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy. Retrospective cohort study. University teaching hospital. All consecutively performed total and completion thyroidectomies from February 2007 to December 2013 were reviewed through a hospital database and patient charts. The relationship between postthyroidectomy laboratory hypocalcemia (serum calcium ≤2 mmol/L), clinical hypocalcemia, and preoperative serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D level was evaluated. Two hundred thirteen patients were analyzed. The incidence of postoperative laboratory and clinical hypocalcemia was 19.7% and 17.8%, respectively. The incidence of laboratory and clinical hypocalcemia among severely deficient (<25 nmol/L), deficient (<50 nmol/L), insufficient (<75 nmol/L), and sufficient (≥75 nmol/L) serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels was 54% versus 33.9%, 10% versus 18%, 2.9% versus 11.6%, and 3.1% versus 0%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed preoperative severe vitamin D deficiency as a significant independent predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia (odds ratio [OR], 7.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-22.9; P = .001). Parathyroid hormone level was also found to be an independent predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8; P = .002). Postoperative clinical and laboratory hypocalcemia is significantly associated with low levels of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D. Our findings identify severe vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/L) as an independent predictor of postoperative laboratory hypocalcemia. Early identification and management of patients at risk may reduce morbidity and costs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 12/2014; DOI:10.1177/0194599814561209 · 1.72 Impact Factor