Role of adiponectin receptors in endothelin-induced cellular hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes and their expression in infarcted heart.
ABSTRACT Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, has cardioprotective actions. We elucidated the role of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in the effects of adiponectin on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes, and we examined the expression of adiponectin receptors in normal and infarcted mouse hearts. Recombinant full-length adiponectin suppressed the ET-1-induced increase in cell surface area and [(3)H]leucine incorporation into cultured cardiomyocytes compared with cells treated with ET-1 alone. Transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 reversed the suppressive effects of adiponectin on ET-1-induced cellular hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes. Adiponectin induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited ET-1-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which were also reversible by transfection of siRNA for AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 in cultured cardiomyocytes. Transfection of siRNA for alpha(2)-catalytic subunits of AMPK reduced the inhibitory effects of adiponectin on ET-1-induced cellular hypertrophy and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Effects of globular adiponectin were similar to those of full-length adiponectin, and siRNA for AdipoR1 reversed the actions of globular adiponectin. Compared with normal left ventricle, expression levels of AdipoR1 mRNA and protein were decreased in the remote, as well as the infarcted, area after myocardial infarction in mouse hearts. In conclusion, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mediate the suppressive effects of full-length and globular adiponectin on ET-1-induced hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes, and AMPK is involved in signal transduction through these receptors. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 might play a role in the pathogenesis of ET-1-related cardiomyocyte hypertrophy after myocardial infarction.
Article: High-fat diet and glucocorticoid treatment cause hyperglycemia associated with adiponectin receptor alterations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues. Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose tissue and reduced adipoR2 mRNA expression 2-fold in liver. Hyperglycemia as a result of a high-fat diet is associated with an increase in the expression of the adiponectin receptors in muscle. An excess of glucocorticoids, rather than their absence, increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels.Lipids in Health and Disease 01/2011; 10:11. · 2.17 Impact Factor