Genetic variation in DTNBP1 influences general cognitive ability.
ABSTRACT Human intelligence is a trait that is known to be significantly influenced by genetic factors, and recent linkage data provide positional evidence to suggest that a region on chromosome 6p, previously associated with schizophrenia, may be linked to variation in intelligence. The gene for dysbindin-1 (DTNBP1) is located at 6p and has also been implicated in schizophrenia, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction. We report an association between DTNBP1 genotype and general cognitive ability (g) in two independent cohorts, including 213 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder and 126 healthy volunteers. These data suggest that DTNBP1 genetic variation influences human intelligence.
- SourceAvailable from: Konrad Talbot[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species has been proposed as an etiological factor in schizophrenia. The present study tests the hypothesis that oxidative stress can affect levels of dysbindin-1A, encoded by Dtnbp1, a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, via its PEST domain. In vitro studies on SH-SY5Y cells indicate that oxidative stress triggers proteasomal degradation of dysbindin-1A, and that this requires interactions with its PEST domain, which may be a TRIM32 target. We specifically found (a) that oxidative stress induced in SH-SY5Y cells by 500 µM hydrogen peroxide reduced levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but did not reduce levels of that protein lacking its PEST domain and (b) that levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but not dysbindin-1 lacking its PEST domain, were higher in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oxidative stress thus emerges as the first known cellular factor regulating dysbindin-1 isoforms with PEST domains. These findings are consistent with the previously noted fact that phosphorylation of PEST domains often marks proteins for proteasomal degradation, and raises the possibility that treatments reducing oxidative stress in the brain, especially during development, may lower schizophrenia risk.Neurochemistry International 10/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutant mice play an increasingly important role in understanding disease processes at multiple levels. In particular, they illuminate the impact of risk genes for disease on such processes. This article reviews recent advances in the application of mutant mice to study the intricacies of dopaminergic (DAergic) function in relation to the putative pathophysiology of psychotic illness, particularly schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drug action. It considers models for understanding the role(s) of risk genes, with a particular focus on DTNBP1 and NRG1, their interactions with environmental factors, and with each other (epistasis). In overview, it considers new schemas for understanding psychotic illness that integrate DAergic pathophysiology with developmental, social, and cognitive processes, and how mutant mouse models can reflect and inform on such schemas.Progress in brain research 01/2014; 211:79-112. · 4.19 Impact Factor
Article: Autonomy and Enhancement[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Some have objected to human enhancement on the grounds that it violates the autonomy of the enhanced. These objections, however, overlook the interesting possibility that autonomy itself could be enhanced. How, exactly, to enhance autonomy is a difficult problem due to the numerous and diverse accounts of autonomy in the literature. Existing accounts of autonomy enhancement rely on narrow and controversial conceptions of autonomy. However, we identify one feature of autonomy common to many mainstream accounts: reasoning ability. Autonomy can then be enhanced by improving people’s reasoning ability, in particular through cognitive enhancement; given how valuable autonomy is usually taken to be, this gives us extra reason to pursue such cognitive enhancements. Moreover, autonomy-based objections will be especially weak against such enhancements. As we will argue, those who are worried that enhancements will inhibit people’s autonomy should actually embrace those enhancements that will improve autonomy.Neuroethics 08/2014; 7(2). · 1.04 Impact Factor
Genetic variation in DTNBP1 influences general
Katherine E. Burdick1,2,*, Todd Lencz1,2, Birgit Funke3, Christine T. Finn3, Philip R. Szeszko1,2,
John M. Kane1,2, Raju Kucherlapati3and Anil K. Malhotra1,2
1Department of Psychiatry Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System
Center for Genetics and Genomics, Boston, MA, USA
2Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Glen Oaks, NY, USA and3Harvard Partners
Received November 11, 2005; Revised and Accepted January 8, 2006
Human intelligence is a trait that is known to be significantly influenced by genetic factors, and recent linkage
data provide positional evidence to suggest that a region on chromosome 6p, previously associated with
schizophrenia, may be linked to variation in intelligence. The gene for dysbindin-1 (DTNBP1) is located at
6p and has also been implicated in schizophrenia, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive
dysfunction. We report an association between DTNBP1 genotype and general cognitive ability (g) in two
independent cohorts, including 213 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder and 126 healthy
volunteers. These data suggest that DTNBP1 genetic variation influences human intelligence.
A robust body of evidence suggests that cognitive abilities,
particularly intelligence, are significantly influenced by
genetic factors (1). The psychometric definition of intelligence
was first described in the early 20th century by Charles
(Spearman’s g), which is the product of an unrotated first prin-
cipal component analysis (PCA) score, accounting for ?40%
of the variance in performance on diverse cognitive measures
(2). The concept of g is widely accepted as a measure of intel-
ligence (3,4) and is based on the significant covariance, or
phenotypic overlap, of a number of different cognitive pro-
cesses, such as memory, spatial ability and verbal ability (5).
In other words, an individual who performs well on a
measure of spatial ability is also likely to perform well on
a range of other cognitive tasks, with a large proportion of
variation in ability being accounted for by g.
Data from more than 8000 parent–offspring pairs, 25 000
sibling pairs, 10 000 twin pairs and adoption studies provide
evidence that genetic factors play a substantial role in the vari-
ation of g (6), with heritability estimates ranging from 40 to
80%. This suggests that there are genetically influenced mech-
anisms that affect performance across a number of diverse
cognitive measures. That is, a gene that influences working
memory is also very likely to be associated with other cogni-
tive abilities (i.e. processing speed) (7–9). Given the signifi-
cant overlap of the phenotypic properties of cognition and
the underlying genetic overlap of independent cognitive abil-
ities, it has been suggested that g, despite its putative pheno-
typic complexity, can be considered an ideal target for
molecular genetic studies.
Two recent linkage studies have provided converging pos-
itional evidence implicating a region on chromosome 6p in
general cognitive abilities in both healthy subjects (10) and
patients with schizophrenia (11). Posthuma et al. (10)
recently reported a genome-wide scan identifying two chro-
mosomal regions that demonstrate evidence of linkage for
intelligence. In 634 sibling pairs derived from two unselected
samples (475 sibling pairs from Australian families, 159
sibling pairs from Dutch families), model-free multipoint
linkage analysis revealed strongly suggestive linkage at
6p25.3–22.3 for full-scale IQ (LOD score 3.20) and for
verbal IQ (LOD score 2.33). This region overlaps with
regions implicated in dyslexia, reading disability (12) and
schizophrenia (13). Hallmayer et al. (11) reported that the
linkage of schizophrenia to this region was specific to a
subset of patients who were characterized by general
# The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
*To whom correspondence should be addressed at: Department of Psychiatry Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, North-Shore-Long Island Jewish
Health System, 75-59 263rd Street, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Glen Oaks, NY 11004, USA. Tel: þ1 7184708167; Fax: þ1 7183431659;
Human Molecular Genetics, 2006, Vol. 15, No. 10
Advance Access published on January 13, 2006
by guest on June 2, 2013
The gene for dysbindin-1 (DTNBP1) is located at 6p22.3
and is a strong candidate to explain these linkage results.
Although the specific role of DTNBP1 in the central nervous
system is unknown, dysbindin-1 is expressed widely in the
brain, including regions in the frontal cortex, temporal
cortex, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens,
amygdala, thalamus and midbrain (14). Moreover, DTNBP1
is demonstrated to influence risk for schizophrenia, a neuro-
psychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive impairment
(15). Initial linkage of schizophrenia to this region was
reported by Straub et al. (16), with subsequent demonstration
of significant association of several variants in the gene that
encodes for dysbindin at chromosome 6p22.3 (17). Several
studies in different populations have been reported since and
most have confirmed an association of schizophrenia with
Recent work by our group (25) supports an association of
DTNBP1 with schizophrenia. In a study comprising 524
patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder and
573 healthy volunteers, we identified a six-locus haplotype
(CTCTAC) that was significantly over-represented in the
Caucasian patients when compared with Caucasian healthy
volunteers (P ¼ 0.005). The minor alleles of three individual
SNPs [P1578-(rs1018381), P1763-(rs2619522) and P1765-
(rs2619528)] were also significantly over-represented in
patients (25). These studies, as well as reports of reductions
in DTNBP1 gene and protein expression in dorsolateral pre-
frontal cortex and hippocampal formation (26) in patients
DTNBP1 is involved in schizophrenia. However, to date,
there are no data that provide specific information on the
relationship between DTNBP1 genotype and cognition.
Therefore, as linkage and association data suggest that dys-
bindin may influence cognition, we have conducted a study
specifically examining DTNBP1 genotype in a large sample
of subjects who were characterized for their cognitive per-
formance. Subjects included patients with schizophrenia or
schizo-affective disorder and healthy volunteers. We focussed
our analyses on the phenotype of g because of its broader var-
iance in schizophrenia, demonstrated heritability, and the
recent positional evidence of linkage for intelligence to the
chromosomal region containing DTNBP1. We hypothesized
that carriers of the six-locus haplotype that we previously
observed to be associated with increased risk for schizophrenia
(25) would have lower g than subjects without the risk haplo-
type. We focused our primary analyses on this haplotype for
several reasons: (i) This was the haplotype identified in our
Caucasian population to increase risk for schizophrenia. (ii)
This risk haplotype significantly overlaps with risk haplotypes
observed by other groups (17,18,22). (iii) The frequency of the
haplotype in schizophrenia patients and in healthy volunteers
provided sufficient power to test its relationship to cognition
in our data set.
Sample characteristics by genotype are presented in Table 1.
The haplotype groups did not significantly differ on age, sex
or education level. Patients did not differ by haplotype
group on illness features including age at onset or global
assessment of functioning (GAF).
Analysis of g revealed a significant overall effect of geno-
type, with poorer performance by carriers of the risk haplotype
(mean ¼ 20.40 + 1.0) when compared with non-carriers
(mean ¼ 0.08 + 1.0) (F ¼ 7.03, df ¼ 1, 338, P ¼ 0.008). As
expected, the effect of diagnostic type was significant
(F ¼ 75.91, df ¼ 1, 338, P , 0.001); however, the diagnostic
type by genotype interaction was not significant (F ¼ 0.02,
df ¼ 1, 338, P ¼ 0.88). Nonetheless, we assessed the effect
of genotype on g in each group independently, with con-
sistent results in each group. Healthy volunteers carrying the
risk haplotype (mean ¼ 0.42 + 0.5) performed significantly
worse than non-carriers (mean ¼ 0.79 + 0.66) (F ¼ 4.29,
df ¼ 1, 125, P ¼ 0.040) and schizophrenia patients carrying
the risk haplotype (mean ¼ 20.72 + 1.0) performed signifi-
(F ¼ 4.50, df ¼ 1, 212, P ¼ 0.035) (Fig. 1). An effect size
estimate (partial h2) suggests that genotype explains ?3%
of the overall variance in g and was slightly larger in
healthy volunteers (3.3%) than in patients with schizophrenia
(2.1%). The absolute magnitude of the effect, however, is
similar in both diagnostic groups (0.37 points in healthy
volunteers and 0.34 points in patients with schizophrenia).
As age and sex are important factors related to cognitive
performance, we ran secondary analyses to control for their
effects and found that when co-varying for age, results
remain significant (P ¼ 0.03) and when entering sex as a
fixed factor, again results remain significant (P ¼ 0.02). In
addition, owing to unequal sample sizes and variances
between carriers and non-carriers, we ran a confirmatory
analysis using a non-parametric approach, and results were
P ¼ 0.003).
As we previously identified SNP 1578 to be a tagging SNP
for the risk haplotype, we conducted analyses of this SNP
using genotype and diagnostic type as fixed factors for analy-
sis of g. Results revealed a significant effect of genotype on g
(mean ¼ 20.38 + 0.9)
U ¼ 5754.0,
Table 1. Sample characteristics of subjects with and without the DTNBP1 CTCTAC risk haplotype
Sample characteristic Healthy volunteers
Carriers (n ¼ 15)
Carriers (n ¼ 39) Non-carriers (n ¼ 111)Non-carriers (n ¼ 174)Statistic (P-value)
Sex (% female)
Age of onset
X2¼ 2.6 (0.11)
1564Human Molecular Genetics, 2006, Vol. 15, No. 10
by guest on June 2, 2013
(F ¼ 5.09, df ¼ 1338, P ¼ 0.03), with carriers of the risk
allele performing significantly worse than non-carriers.
There were no other significant results at any of the other
The complementary analysis, although not independent of
the primary analyses, evaluating haplotype frequencies in
the patient sample by comparing ‘cognitive-deficit’ versus
‘cognitively spared’ subgroups revealed that a significantly
greater proportion of the cognitive-deficit patients carried the
risk haplotype (n ¼ 17, 28.3%) when compared with the
cognitively spared subgroup of patients (n ¼ 22, 14.4%)
(x2¼ 5.61, df ¼ 1, P ¼ 0.02).
We evaluated the relationship between a DTNBP1 haplotype
(CTCTAC) previously observed by our group to be associated
with schizophrenia (25) and a calculated measure of g (the first
unrotated factor of a PCA with a number of diverse cognitive
measures) in two independent samples including patients with
schizophrenia and healthy volunteers and found that carriers
of the risk haplotype had lower g when compared with non-
carriers in both cohorts. The tagging SNP (SNP 1578) was
also associated with g in both groups, whereas no other indi-
vidual SNP was associated with neurocognition. Furthermore,
when we characterized the patient sample by cognitive-deficit
patients versus cognitively spared patients, we found that the
cognitive-deficit patients were nearly twice as likely to carry
the risk haplotype (27%) than the cognitively spared patients
(15%). These data suggest that DTNBP1 genotype plays a
significant role in the inter-individual variation in g.
These data are convergent with Posthuma et al. (10), who
recently provided evidence for linkage for intelligence to the
chromosomal region containing DTNBP1. In addition, our
results are consistent with the recent data of Hallmayer et al.
(11), which suggested that the linkage to schizophrenia in the
region of 6p may be driven by a cognitively impaired subgroup
of patients characterized as such by a latent structure analysis.
Williams et al. (24), based on an association in their sample
between level of education and a three-locus DTNBP1 haplo-
type.These data suggest that DTNBP1 may impart an increased
risk for schizophrenia through its effects on the specific
symptom domain of impaired cognition. However, the effect
of DTNBP1 on cognition may be only indirectly linked to its
role in susceptibility to schizophrenia, as we observe a similar
effect in healthy volunteers. Our data are also consistent with
a number of recent associations between candidate genes and
cognition in various populations, including catechol-o-methyl
transferase (COMT) (7,8,27), disrupted in schizophrenia
(DISC1) (28–30), succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
(SSADH) (31), apolipoprotein-E (APOE) (32) and KLOTHO
The mechanism underlying the effect of DTNBP1 genotype
on cognitive performance is currently unclear, especially
because it is broadly distributed throughout the central
nervous system, including regions in the frontal cortex, tem-
poral cortex, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, nucleus accum-
bens, amygdala, thalamus and midbrain (14). Dysbindin-1
binds to b-dystrobrevin, a component of the dystrophin glyco-
protein complex (DPC) in the brain. Although the DPC is
found at postsynaptic sites, several studies demonstrate pre-
synaptic dysbindin expression in cerebellum and hippocampus
(26,34). b-dystrobrevin interacts with proteins (dysbindin and
muted) that are known subunits of biogenesis of lysosome-
related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), raising the possibility
that it may be involved in vesicle trafficking in non-muscle
tissue (35). Li et al. (35) suggest that dysbindin may be inde-
pendently part of both BLOC-1 and the DPC complex, with
distinct vesicle trafficking functions for each (35).
Preliminary data suggest that DTNBP1 genotype may
impact upon the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems
through reduced DTNBP1 expression (36–38). For example,
Numakawa et al. (37) presented a dysbindin knockdown
model resulting in reduced glutamate release, thought to be
caused by suppression of presynaptic proteins involved in
intracellular vesicle trafficking. Interestingly, Bray et al. (36)
demonstrated that the A allele of rs1047631, a SNP related
to the schizophrenia risk haplotype in the Cardiff sample
(24), was linked to reduced cortical expression of DTNBP1
mRNA (36). Further, the T allele of the tagging SNP P1578,
which was associated with lower g in the present study, is in
complete linkage disequilibrium (D0¼ 1) with the A allele
of rs1047631 in both the postmortem samples of Bray et al.
and the CEPH (Utah residents with ancestry from Northern
and Western Europe) samples of the HapMap Project (39).
Thus, it is possible to speculate that the risk haplotype
described in this report is associated with reduced dysbindin
expression, resulting in decreased levels of glutamate release
(24). It is important to emphasize, however, that no variant
within DTNBP1 has, as yet, provided direct evidence of func-
tional effects; therefore, additional efforts will be needed to
identify the putative functional locus.
Figure 1. DTNBP1 risk haplotype and general cognitive ability (g) in subjects
with and without the DTNBP1 CTCTAC risk haplotype. The X-axis represents
subject type. The Y-axis represents the first factor from the PCA calculated for
g. Z-scores are calculated using the standardized mean ¼ 0 and SD ¼ 1 from
the healthy volunteer sample, such that lower values reflect worse perform-
ance. Error bars represent 95% confidence interval. The overall effect of geno-
type is significant at P ¼ 0.008, and the subject type by genotype interaction is
Human Molecular Genetics, 2006, Vol. 15, No. 10 1565
by guest on June 2, 2013
In summary, we report an association between DTNBP1 and
g in two independent cohorts including patients with schizo-
phrenia and healthy volunteers, suggesting that DTNBP1 gen-
otype influences variation in human cognitive ability and
intelligence. Although these data suggest that DTNBP1 may
be a candidate gene for intelligence, DTNBP1 genotype
explained only a small proportion (3%) of the variance on
this measure, supporting a model involving multiple genetic
and environmental influences.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study group included 213 unrelated Caucasian patients
with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder and 126
unrelated Caucasian healthy volunteers. All subjects provided
written informed consent to an Institutional Review Board of
(NSLIJHS)-approved protocol. Patients were recruited from
the inpatient units of the Zucker Hillside Hospital (ZHH), a
division of the NSLIJHS, in Glen Oaks, New York. Diagnosis
was established through structured interview (structured
clinical interview-DSM-IV; SCID-IV) (40) and confirmed by
diagnostic consensus conference.
Healthy volunteers for the project were recruited from the
general population. Advertisement was made by word of
mouth, newspaper and internet advertisements and posted
flyers. Prospective participants were administered the SCID-
IV, non-patient edition (SCID-NP) specifically designed to
assess healthy subjects.
In addition to the structured diagnostic interview, all poten-
tial subjects were screened to rule out any history of CNS
trauma, neurological disorder or learning disability. A urine
toxicology screen was also performed, and in the case of posi-
tive results, the subject was excluded. Healthy volunteers who
identified a first-degree relative with an Axis I disorder were
All subjects were administered a battery of standardized cog-
nitive measures comprising the Wide Range Achievement
Test-Third Edition-Reading Subtest (WRAT-3), Wechsler
Adult Intelligence Test-Revised (WAIS-R)-Digit Span, Con-
tinuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs Version (CPT-I/P),
California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-Abridged, Con-
trolled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) and Trail
Making Tests A&B (41). Our primary-dependent measure
was g, the first factor score derived from an unrotated principal
components analysis, as previously described (2). Data
reduction was achieved through factor analysis using principal
components as the extraction method. All cognitive variable
data were transformed to standardized Z-scores, using the
healthy volunteers as the normative sample. Z-scores for all
variables were entered, and a total of 14 missing values in
the patient sample were replaced by the mean of the patient
group. There were no missing values in the healthy sample.
No case with more than one missing value was retained in
the sample. PCA was conducted in each group separately.
The factor structure was nearly identical in our healthy volun-
teers and patients with schizophrenia, with no factor loading
difference greater than 0.15; therefore, the data were
merged. The first unrotated factor explained 50% of the var-
iance and represented our general cognitive ability factor.
Each of the individual measures loaded onto the first factor
with covariance of .0.55. Factor scores representing g are
standardized using a Z-score scale with a mean of 0 and
standard deviation of 1.
Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood samples using
a standard protocol. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms
[P1583-(rs909706), P1578-(rs1018381), P1763-(rs2619522),
P1320-(rs760761), P1765-(rs2619528), P1635-(rs3213207) and
P1325-(rs1011313)] were genotyped using the MALDI-TOF
mass spectrometry by the Sequenom system. However, only six
hence, the seventh marker (P1635) was excluded from further
We utilized the SNPHAP program (David Clayton, Univer-
sity of Cambridge, UK) for estimating the haplotype frequen-
cies, which uses an expectation-maximization algorithm to
calculate maximum likelihood estimates of haplotype frequen-
cies, given genotype measurements which do not specify
phase. Any individual whose haplotypes could not be assigned
with a confidence of 95% or greater were excluded from the
General cognitive ability (g) of subjects with at least one copy
of the risk haplotype (CTCTAC) identified by Funke et al.
(25) was compared with g of subjects having no copies of
the haplotype, with independent univariate analysis of var-
iance (ANOVA). Owing to the low frequency of homozygote
risk haplotype carriers (n ¼ 7), these subjects were grouped
with heterozygote carriers for all analyses. Genotype and diag-
nostic type (patient versus healthy volunteer) were entered as
fixed factors and alpha level was set at 0.05. Follow-up testing
was conducted to assess the effect of genotype on g in each
subject group independently.
In a complementary analysis of the patient sample, we
assessed risk haplotype frequencies in a subgroup of patients
defined as ‘cognitive-deficit’ (whose performance fell at
least 1 SD below the mean g) (n ¼ 60) and compared them
with risk haplotype frequencies of a ‘cognitively spared’
subgroup of patients (n ¼ 153) using x2.
The authors acknowledge Pamela DeRosse for her contri-
bution to subject diagnosis and database management and
Kate Nassauer, Gail Reiter, Adriana Franco, Erica Greenberg
and Denise Coscia for their role in the collection of the neuro-
cognitive data. In addition, we acknowledge Jenny M. Ekholm
for her contribution to the haplotype estimation for this study.
This work was supported by grants K23MH001760 to A.K.M.,
1566Human Molecular Genetics, 2006, Vol. 15, No. 10
by guest on June 2, 2013
HD034980-09 to R.K., NARSAD and the Stanley Medical
Research Institute (03-RC-001).
Conflict of Interest statement. None declared.
1. Plomin, R. and Spinath, F.M. (2004) Intelligence: genetics, genes, and
genomics. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 86, 112–129.
2. Carroll, J.B. (1997) Psychometrics, intelligence, and public policy.
Intelligence, 24, 25–52.
3. Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T.J., Boykin, A.W., Brody, N.,
Ceci, S.J., Halpern, D.F., Loehlin, J.C., Perloff, R., Sternberg and R.J.,
Urbina, S. (1996) Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. Am. Psychol., 51,
4. Snyderman, M. and Rothman, S. (1987) Survey of expert opinion on
intelligence and aptitude testing. Am. Psychol., 42, 137–144.
5. Plomin, R. (1999). Genetics and general cognitive ability. Nature, 402,
6. Plomin, R., Hill, L., Craig, I.W., McGuffin, P., Purcell, S., Sham, P.,
Lubinski, D., Thompson, L.A., Fisher, P.J., Turic, D.and Owen, M.J.
(2001). A genome-wide scan of 1842 DNA markers for allelic
associations with general cognitive ability: a five-stage design using DNA
pooling and extreme selected groups. Behav. Genet., 31, 497–509.
7. Egan, M.F., Goldberg, T.E., Kolachana, B.S., Callicott, J.H.,
Mazzanti, C.M., Straub, R.E., Goldman, D. and Weinberger, D.R. (2001)
Effect of COMT Val108/158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and
risk for schizophrenia. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 6917–6922.
8. Malhotra, A.K., Kestler, L.J., Mazzanti, C., Bates, J.A., Goldberg, T. and
Goldman, D. (2002) A functional polymorphism in the COMT gene and
performance on a test of prefrontal cognition. Am. J. Psychiatry, 159,
9. Bilder, R.M., Volavka, J., Czobor, P., Malhotra, A.K., Kennedy, J.L.,
Ni, X., Goldman, R.S., Hoptman, M.J., Sheitman, B., Lindenmayer, J.P.
et al. (2002) Neurocognitive correlates of the COMT Val(158)Met
polymorphism in chronic schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatr., 52, 701–707.
10. Posthuma, D., Luciano, M., Geus, E.J., Wright, M.J., Slagboom, P.E.,
Montgomery, G.W., Boomsma, D.I. and Martin, N.G. (2005)
A genomewide scan for intelligence identifies quantitative trait Loci on 2q
and 6p. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 77, 318–326.
11. Hallmayer, J.F., Kalaydjieva, L., Badcock, J., Dragovic, M., Howell, S.,
Michie, P.T., Rock, D., Vile, D., Williams, R., Corder, E.H. et al. (2005)
Genetic evidence for a distinct subtype of schizophrenia characterized by
pervasive cognitive deficit. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 77, 468–476.
12. Deffenbacher, K.E., Kenyon, J.B., Hoover, D.M., Olson, R.K.,
Pennington, B.F., DeFries, J.C. and Smith, S.D. (2004) Refinement of the
6p21.3 quantitative trait locus influencing dyslexia: linkage and
association analyses. Hum. Genet., 115, 128–138.
13. Harrison, P.J. and Weinberger, D.R. (2005) Schizophrenia genes, gene
expression, and neuropathology: on the matter of their convergence. Mol.
Psychiatr., 10, 40–68.
14. Weickert, C.S., Straub, R.E., McClintock, B.W., Matsumoto, M.,
Hashimoto, R., Hyde, T.M., Herman, M.M., Weinberger, D.R. and
Kleinman, J.E. (2004) Human dysbindin (DTNBP1) gene expression in
normal brain and in schizophrenic prefrontal cortex and midbrain. Arch.
Gen. Psychiatr., 61, 544–555.
15. Tamminga, C.A. and Holcomb, H.H. (2005) Phenotype of schizophrenia:
a review and formulation. Mol. Psychiatr., 10, 27–39.
16. Straub, R.E., MacLean, C.J., O’Neill, F.A., Burke, J., Murphy, B.,
Duke, F., Shinkwin, R., Webb, B.T., Zhang, J. and Walsh, D. (1995) A
potential vulnerability locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p24–22:
evidence for genetic heterogeneity. Nat. Genet., 11, 287–293.
17. Straub, R.E., Jiang, Y., MacLean, C.J., Ma, Y., Webb, B.T.,
Myakishev, M.V., Harris-Kerr, C., Wormley, B., Sadek, H., Kadambi, B.
et al. (2002) Genetic variation in the 6p22.3 gene DTNBP1, the human
ortholog of the mouse dysbindin gene, is associated with schizophrenia.
Am. J. Hum. Genet., 71, 337–348.
18. van den Oord, E.J., Sullivan, P.F., Jiang, Y., Walsh, D., O’Neill, F.A.,
Kendler, K.S. and Riley, B.P. (2003) Identification of a high-risk haplotype
for the dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene in the Irish study of
high-density schizophrenia families. Mol. Psychiatr., 8, 499–510.
19. Morris, D.W., McGhee, K.A., Schwaiger, S., Scully, P., Quinn, J.,
Meagher, D., Waddington, J.L., Gill, M. and Corvin, A.P. (2003) No
evidence for association of the dysbindin gene [DTNBP1] with
schizophrenia in an Irish population-based study. Schizophr. Res., 60,
20. Schwab, S.G., Knapp, M., Mondabon, S., Hallmayer, J., Borrmann-
Hassenbach, M., Albus, M., Lerer, B., Rietschel, M., Trixler, M.,
Maier, W. and Wildenauer, D.B. (2003) Support for association of
schizophrenia with genetic variation in the 6p22.3 gene, dysbindin, in
sib-pair families with linkage and in an additional sample of triad families.
Am. J. Hum. Genet., 72, 185–190.
21. Tang, J.X., Zhou, J., Fan, J.B., Li, X.W., Shi, Y.Y., Gu, N.F., Feng, G.Y.,
Xing, Y.L., Shi, J.G. and He, L. (2003) Family-based association study of
DTNBP1 in 6p22.3 and schizophrenia. Mol. Psychiatr., 8, 717–718.
22. Van Den Bogaert, A., Schumacher, J., Schulze, T.G., Otte, A.C.,
Ohlraun, S., Kovalenko, S., Becker, T., Freudenberg, J., Jonsson, E.G.,
Mattila-Evenden, M. et al. (2003) The DTNBP1 (dysbindin) gene
contributes to schizophrenia, depending on family history of the disease.
Am. J. Hum. Genet., 73, 1438–1443.
23. Kirov, G., Ivanov, D., Williams, N.M., Preece, A., Nikolov, I., Milev, R.,
Koleva, S., Dimitrova, A., Toncheva, D., O’Donovan, M.C. and
Owen, M.J. (2004) Strong evidence for association between the
dystrobrevin binding protein 1 gene (DTNBP1) and schizophrenia in 488
parent–offspring trios from Bulgaria. Biol. Psychiatr., 55, 971–975.
24. Williams, N.M., Preece, A., Morris, D.W., Spurlock, G., Bray, N.J.,
Stephens, M., Norton, N., Williams, H., Clement, M., Dwyer, S. et al.
(2004) Identification in 2 independent samples of a novel schizophrenia
risk haplotype of the dystrobrevin binding protein gene (DTNBP1). Arch.
Gen. Psychiatr., 61, 336–344.
25. Funke, B., Finn, C.T., Plocik, A.M., Lake, S., DeRosse, P., Kane, J.M.,
Kucherlapati, R. and Malhotra, A.K. (2004) Association of the DTNBP1
locus with schizophrenia in a U.S. population. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 75,
26. Talbot, K., Eidem, W.L., Tinsley, C.L., Benson, M.A., Thompson, E.W.,
Smith, R.J., Hahn, C.G., Siegel, S.J., Trojanowski, J.Q., Gur, R.E. et al.
(2004) Dysbindin-1 is reduced in intrinsic, glutamatergic terminals of the
hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. J. Clin. Invest., 113,
27. de Frias, C.M., Annerbrink, K., Westberg, L., Eriksson, E., Adolfsson, R.
and Nilsson, L.G. (2005) Catechol O-methyltransferase Val158Met
polymorphism is associated with cognitive performance in nondemented
adults. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 17, 1018–1025.
28. Burdick, K.E., Hodgkinson, C.A., Szeszko, P.R., Lencz, T., Ekholm,
J.M., Kane, J.M., Goldman, D. and Malhotra, A.K. (2005) DISC1 and
neurocognitive function in schizophrenia. Neuroreport, 16, 1399–1402.
29. Callicott, J.H., Straub, R.E., Pezawas, L., Egan, M.F., Mattay, V.S.,
Hariri, A.R., Verchinski, B.A., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Balkissoon, R.,
Kolachana, B. et al. (2005) Variation in DISC1 affects hippocampal
structure and function and increases risk for schizophrenia. Proc. Natl
Acad. Sci USA., 102, 8627–8632.
30. Thomson, P.A., Harris, S.E., Starr, J.M., Whalley, L.J., Porteous, D.J. and
Deary, I.J. (2005) Association between genotype at an exonic SNP in
DISC1 and normal cognitive aging. Neurosci. Lett., 389, 41–45.
31. Plomin, R., Turic, D.M., Hill, L., Turic, D.E., Stephens, M., Williams, J.,
Owen, M.J. and O’Donovan, M.C. (2004) A functional polymorphism in
the succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (aldehyde dehydrogenase 5
family, member A1) gene is associated with cognitive ability. Mol.
Psychiatr., 9, 582–586.
32. Ferguson, S.C., Deary, I.J., Perros, P., Evans, J.C., Ellard, S.,
Hattersley, A.T. and Frier, B.M. (2003) Apolipoprotein-e influences
aspects of intellectual ability in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes, 52, 145–148.
33. Deary, I.J., Harris, S.E., Fox, H.C., Hayward, C., Wright, A.F., Starr, J.M.
and Whalley, L.J. (2005) KLOTHO genotype and cognitive ability in
childhood and old age in the same individuals. Neurosci. Lett., 378,
34. Sillitoe, R.V., Benson, M.A., Blake, D.J. and Hawkes, R. (2003) Abnormal
dysbindin expression in cerebellar mossy fiber synapses in the mdx mouse
model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J. Neurosci., 23, 6576–6585.
35. Li, W., Zhang, Q., Oiso, N., Novak, E.K., Gautam, R., O’Brien, E.P.,
Tinsley, C.L., Blake, D.J., Spritz, R.A., Copeland, N.G. et al. (2002)
Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome type 7 (HPS-7) results from mutant
dysbindin, a member of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles
complex 1 (BLOC-1). Nat. Genet., 35, 84–89.
Human Molecular Genetics, 2006, Vol. 15, No. 101567
by guest on June 2, 2013
36. Bray, N.J., Preece, A., Williams, N.M., Moskvina, V., Buckland, P.R.,
Owen, M.J. and O’donovan, M.C. (2005) Haplotypes at the dystrobrevin
binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene locus mediate risk for schizophrenia
through reduced DTNBP1 expression. Hum. Mol. Genet., 14, 1947–1954.
37. Numakawa, T., Yagasaki, Y., Ishimoto, T., Okada, T., Suzuki, T.,
Iwata, N., Ozaki, N., Taguchi, T., Tatsumi, M., Kamijima, K. et al. (2004)
Evidence of novel neuronal functions of dysbindin, a susceptibility gene
for schizophrenia. Hum. Mol. Genet., 13, 2699–2708.
38. Weickert, C.S., Straub, R.E., McClintock, B.W., Matsumoto, M.,
Hashimoto, R., Hyde, T.M., Herman, M.M., Weinberger, D.R. and
Kleinman, J.E. (2004) Human dysbindin (DTNBP1) gene expression in
normal brain and in schizophrenic prefrontal cortex and midbrain. Arch.
Gen. Psychiatr., 61, 544–555.
39. Altshuler, D., Brooks, L.D., Chakravarti, A., Collins, F.S., Daly, M.J. and
Donnelly, P. (2005) International HapMap Consortium. A haplotype map
of the human genome. Nature, 437, 1299–1320.
40. First, M.B., Spitzer, R., Gibbon, M. and Williams, J. (1997). SCID-I:
Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV. American Psychiatric Press,
New York, NY.
41. Spreen, O. and Strauss, E. (1998) A Compendium of Neuropsychological
Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary, 2nd edn. Oxford
University Press, New York, NY.
1568 Human Molecular Genetics, 2006, Vol. 15, No. 10
by guest on June 2, 2013