Immune cells contribute to the maintenance of neurogenesis and spatial learning abilities in adulthood.
ABSTRACT Neurogenesis is known to take place in the adult brain. This work identifies T lymphocytes and microglia as being important to the maintenance of hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning abilities in adulthood. Hippocampal neurogenesis induced by an enriched environment was associated with the recruitment of T cells and the activation of microglia. In immune-deficient mice, hippocampal neurogenesis was markedly impaired and could not be enhanced by environmental enrichment, but was restored and boosted by T cells recognizing a specific CNS antigen. CNS-specific T cells were also found to be required for spatial learning and memory and for the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the dentate gyrus, implying that a common immune-associated mechanism underlies different aspects of hippocampal plasticity and cell renewal in the adult brain.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inappropriate T cell responses in the central nervous system (CNS) affect the pathogenesis of a broad range of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders that include, but are not limited to, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. On the one hand immune responses can exacerbate neurotoxic responses; while on the other hand, they can lead to neuroprotective outcomes. The temporal and spatial mechanisms by which these immune responses occur and are regulated in the setting of active disease have gained significant recent attention. Spatially, immune responses that affect neurodegeneration may occur within or outside the CNS. Migration of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells from the periphery to the CNS and consequent immune cell interactions with resident glial cells affect neuroinflammation and neuronal survival. The destructive or protective mechanisms of these interactions are linked to the relative numerical and functional dominance of effector or regulatory T cells. Temporally, immune responses at disease onset or during progression may exhibit a differential balance of immune responses in the periphery and within the CNS. Immune responses with predominate T cell subtypes may differentially manifest migratory, regulatory and effector functions when triggered by endogenous misfolded and aggregated proteins and cell-specific stimuli. The final result is altered glial and neuronal behaviors that influence the disease course. Thus, discovery of neurodestructive and neuroprotective immune mechanisms will permit potential new therapeutic pathways that affect neuronal survival and slow disease progression.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The full spectrum of cellular interactions within CNS neurogenic niches is still poorly understood. Only recently has the monocyte counterpart of the nervous system, the microglial cells, been described as an integral cellular component of neurogenic niches. The present study sought to characterize the microglia population in the early postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), the major site of postnatal neurogenesis, as well as in its anterior extension, the rostral migratory stream (RMS), a pathway for neuroblasts during their transit toward the olfactory bulb (OB) layers. Here we show that microglia within the SVZ/RMS pathway are not revealed by phenotypic markers that characterize microglia in other regions. Analysis of the transgenic mice strain that has one locus of the constitutively expressed fractalkine CX3CR1 receptor replaced by the gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) circumvented the antigenic plasticity of the microglia, thus allowing us to depict microglia within the SVZ/RMS pathway during early development. Notably, microglia within the early SVZ/RMS are not proliferative and display a protracted development, retaining a more immature morphology than their counterparts outside germinal layers. Furthermore, microglia contact and phagocyte radial glia cells (RG) processes, thereby playing a role on the astroglial transformation that putative stem cells within the SVZ niche undergo during the first postnatal days.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 03/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00037 · 4.18 Impact Factor
Article: Interleukin-1 and acute brain injury[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inflammation is the key host-defense response to infection and injury, yet also a major contributor to a diverse range of diseases, both peripheral and central in origin. Brain injury as a result of stroke or trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, yet there are no effective treatments, resulting in enormous social and economic costs. Increasing evidence, both preclinical and clinical, highlights inflammation as an important factor in stroke, both in determining outcome and as a contributor to risk. A number of inflammatory mediators have been proposed as key targets for intervention to reduce the burden of stroke, several reaching clinical trial, but as yet yielding no success. Many factors could explain these failures, including the lack of robust preclinical evidence and poorly designed clinical trials, in addition to the complex nature of the clinical condition. Lack of consideration in preclinical studies of associated co-morbidities prevalent in the clinical stroke population is now seen as an important omission in previous work. These co-morbidities (atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, infection) have a strong inflammatory component, supporting the need for greater understanding of how inflammation contributes to acute brain injury. Interleukin (IL)-1 is the prototypical pro-inflammatory cytokine, first identified many years ago as the endogenous pyrogen. Research over the last 20 years or so reveals that IL-1 is an important mediator of neuronal injury and blocking the actions of IL-1 is beneficial in a number of experimental models of brain damage. Mechanisms underlying the actions of IL-1 in brain injury remain unclear, though increasing evidence indicates the cerebrovasculature as a key target. Recent literature supporting this and other aspects of how IL-1 and systemic inflammation in general contribute to acute brain injury are discussed in this review.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 03/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00018 · 4.18 Impact Factor