Immunohistochemical expression of p16INK4a is predictive of HR-HPV infection in cervical low-grade lesions

Department of Pathology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.36). 04/2006; 19(3):384-91. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.3800551
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The p16(INK4a) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that decelerates the cell cycle by inactivating the cyclin-dependent kinases involved in the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB). Expression of E6 and E7 oncogenes of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV), affecting the RB-p16 pathway, leads to p16 upregulation. Although it is widely reported that p16 is overexpressed in a high percentage of preneoplastic lesions and in almost all carcinomas of the uterine cervix, protein upregulation and its correlation with HPV infection in low-grade lesions is still being debated. In this study, we investigated in parallel, p16 expression and HPV infection in 100 cervical biopsies (17 normal tissues, 54 CIN1, 10 CIN2, 11 CIN3, eight invasive squamous cancers). Results obtained demonstrated that none of the 17 normal cervical tissues, evaluated by immunohistochemistry, presented p16 positivity whereas, starting from CIN1 (31%) to CIN2 (90%), CIN3 (100%) and carcinomas (100%), a constant and significant increase of protein overexpression (P<0.0001) was observed. In addition, p16 overexpression consistently showed elevated sensitivity (84%) and specificity (98%) in detecting HR-HPV infection with a high positive predictive value (97%) and negative predictive value (86%). Of interest, 93% of the p16-positive CIN1 were also HR-HPV infected. Our findings confirmed that p16 overexpression is associated to high-grade precancerous lesions and cervical carcinomas, and further demonstrated that immunohistochemical evaluation of p16 may be a useful biomarker in identifying HR-HPV-infected low-grade lesions.


Available from: Isabella Sperduti, Apr 01, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinomas of the lower anogenital tract that are related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection represent a significant disease burden worldwide. The diagnosis and management of their noninvasive precursors has been the subject of extensive study and debate over several decades, accompanied by an evolving understanding of HPV biology. Recent new consensus recommendations for the pathologic diagnosis of these precursor lesions were published in 2012, the result of the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology project cosponsored by the College of American Pathologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Most salient among the new guidelines are the recommendation to switch to a 2-tiered nomenclature (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) rather than the traditional 3-tiered "intraepithelial neoplasia" terminology, and the recommendation to expand use of the immunohistochemical marker p16 to distinguish between low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/intraepithelial neoplasia 2. The goals of the project were to align diagnostic terminology with our knowledge of HPV biology, increase reproducibility, consolidate diverse systems of nomenclature, and ultimately better determine a patient's true cancer risk. The clinical guidelines for screening and management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia have also been recently updated, most notably with a lengthening of screening intervals. In this review, we focus on the new guidelines put forth for pathologic diagnosis of HPV-related anogenital neoplasia, with discussion of the evidence behind them and their potential implications. We also provide an update on relevant biomarkers, clinical recommendations, and the newest developments relating to cervical neoplasia.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide. It is well established that human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is the prime risk factor in the development of cervical cancer. The current screening and diagnostic tests have limitations in identifying the range of lesions caused by HPV. The current study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of p16 immunohistochemical (IHC) investigation in high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) related lesions of the uterine cervix in Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban, Malaysia.MethodsA total of 75 cases were selected from the records of Pathology services, Hospital Tuanku Ja¿afar, Seremban. The samples were collected in three separate groups (n¿=¿25 per group) as Carcinoma cervix, Carcinoma in situ and Chronic cervicitis. The demographic data of the patients and the representative paraffin blocks were retrieved from Hospital Tuanku Ja¿afar, Seremban. The immunohistochemical staining with p16 and HPV 16 L1 were done on all cases. The staining intensity and density were observed and compared among the three groups of cases.ResultsImmunohistochemistry of p16INK4A staining shows nil (0/25) expression in the cervicitis patients, 72% (18/25) in CIN patients and 100% (25/25) in cervical carcinoma. HPV 16 L1 was positive in 100% (25/25) of cervicitis patients, 96% (24/25) of CIN patients and 40% (10/25) of cervical cancers patients. A chi square test was used to analyze the result and the obtained p value was <0.05.Conclusionp16 expression was strongly observed in cervical cancer and minimally observed in cervicitis. Thus indicating p16 immunohistochemistry investigations can aid in diagnosing the different categories of cervical lesions into benign, insitu and malignant.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
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