The effects of sertraline on severe tinnitus suffering--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
ABSTRACT The relationship between tinnitus and anxiety and depressive disorders has been frequently alluded to, but there are few studies on antidepressants in the treatment of tinnitus, and the efficacy of sertraline on severe refractory tinnitus has not been reported.
Consecutive tinnitus patients (n = 76) considered to be at high risk for severe and disabling tinnitus according to a recently developed screening procedure were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 38) or sertraline (n = 38) at a fixed dose (25 mg/d on the first week and 50 mg/d on the following 15 weeks). Between-group comparisons of Tinnitus Severity Questionnaire scores over 16 weeks were made as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes of tinnitus loudness and tinnitus annoyance were also measured using a visual analogue scale. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was evaluated using the Hamilton rating scales (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, interview-based ratings) and the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (self-ratings).
The intention-to-treat analysis showed sertraline to be more effective than placebo (P = 0.024) in decreasing reported tinnitus severity according to the Tinnitus Severity Questionnaire at 16 weeks' follow-up. There was also more improvement (P = 0.014) in perceived tinnitus loudness. There were significant correlations between reduction of tinnitus according to the Tinnitus Severity Questionnaire over 16 weeks and improvements in depressive (r = 0.42-0.46) and anxiety symptoms (r = 0.34-0.42). Sertraline was well tolerated after a somewhat high (17%) dropout rate within the first 2 weeks.
Sertraline is more effective than placebo in the treatment of severe refractory tinnitus.
- SourceAvailable from: Jose A Lopez-Escamez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION. Chronic tinnitus affects 5-15% of the general population; in 1% of individuals with tinnitus this condition severely affects their quality of life. Pharmacological treatment is one of the options for the management of tinnitus patients, but their efficacy remains controversial. AIM. To evaluate the level of evidence to support the use of different drugs in reducing the severity of tinnitus. DEVELOPMENT. The pharmacological groups that have been investigated for the treatment of tinnitus include anesthetics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, diuretics, corticosteroids, and of other substances. Intravenous lidocaine seems to be effective, but the short duration of the effect and the adverse reactions prevent its use. Compared with placebo, carbamazepine and gabapentine have not demonstrated effectiveness although they may be effective in some patients with auditory nerve vascular compression or myoclonus. Tricyclic antidepressants are no more effective than placebo at reducing tinnitus severity although they may improve comorbid depression. There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and benzodiazepines. Acamprosate may decrease the severity of tinnitus, but the level of evidence is low. There are no consistent results in the studies with intratympanic gentamicin or steroids in tinnitus associated with Meniere's disease. CONCLUSIONS. The use of pharmacotherapy in reducing the severity of tinnitus is not well supported by prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Various drugs have been shown to be effective in some studies, but the clinical evidence is limited. Large randomized clinical trials are needed.Revista de neurologia. 08/2014; 59(4):164-74.
- Journal of Psychosomatic Research 10/2006; 61(4):581-581. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. Comorbid psychiatric disorders are frequent among patients affected by tinnitus. There are mutual clinical influences between tinnitus and psychiatric disorders, as well as neurobiological relations based on partially overlapping hodological and neuroplastic phenomena. The aim of the present paper is to review the evidence of alterations in brain networks underlying tinnitus physiopathology and to discuss them in light of the current knowledge of the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. Methods. Relevant literature was identified through a search on Medline and PubMed; search terms included tinnitus, brain, plasticity, cortex, network, and pathways. Results. Tinnitus phenomenon results from systemic-neurootological triggers followed by neuronal remapping within several auditory and nonauditory pathways. Plastic reorganization and white matter alterations within limbic system, arcuate fasciculus, insula, salience network, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, auditory pathways, ffrontocortical, and thalamocortical networks are discussed. Discussion. Several overlapping brain network alterations do exist between tinnitus and psychiatric disorders. Tinnitus, initially related to a clinicoanatomical approach based on a cortical localizationism, could be better explained by an holistic or associationist approach considering psychic functions and tinnitus as emergent properties of partially overlapping large-scale neural networks.Neural Plasticity 01/2014; 2014:817852. · 2.86 Impact Factor