Influence of fertilization on acrylamide formation during frying of potatoes harvested in 2003.
ABSTRACT The quality of the potato has been found to vary, when grown under different agricultural and environmental conditions, such as the level of fertilization. Consequently these factors may influence the acrylamide formation during the preparation of French fries. These assumptions were studied on three varieties: Bintje, Ramos, and Saturna from the harvest of 2003. Decreasing N fertilization caused increases in the reducing sugar concentration from 60% up to 100% on DM for all varieties studied. Due to a high correlation between the reducing sugar content and the generation of acrylamide during frying, this resulted in a parallel increase in the acrylamide concentration of the French fries. Thus by lowering the amount of N fertilizer, an increase of 30-65% of the acrylamide generation during frying could be observed. It seems of extreme importance to find an appropriate balance between the level of N fertilizer in order to diminish acrylamide formation but on the other hand to obtain an acceptable tuber and to consider the environmental impact. All results reported should be seen in the perspective of the warm growing season of 2003.
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ABSTRACT: A review of agronomic and genetic approaches as strategies for the mitigation of acrylamide risk in wheat and potato is presented. Acrylamide is formed through the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking, such as frying, roasting, or baking, and the main precursors are free asparagine and reducing sugars. In wheat flour, acrylamide formation is determined by asparagine levels and asparagine accumulation increases dramatically in response to sulfur deprivation and, to a much lesser extent, with nitrogen feeding. In potatoes, in which sugar concentrations are much lower, the relationships between acrylamide and its precursors are more complex. Much attention has been focused on reducing the levels of sugars in potatoes as a means of reducing acrylamide risk. However, the level of asparagine as a proportion of the total free amino acid pool has been shown to be a key parameter, indicating that when sugar levels are limiting, competition between asparagine and the other amino acids for participation in the Maillard reaction determines acrylamide formation. Genetic approaches to reducing acrylamide risk include the identification of cultivars and other germplasm in which free asparagine and/or sugar levels are low and the manipulation of genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism and signaling. These approaches are made more difficult by genotype/environment interactions that can result in a genotype being "good" in one environment but "poor" in another. Another important consideration is the effect that any change could have on flavor in the cooked product. Nevertheless, as both wheat and potato are regarded as of relatively high acrylamide risk compared with, for example, maize and rice, it is essential that changes are achieved that mitigate the problem.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2008; 56(15):6167-72. · 2.82 Impact Factor
Article: Risk-Benefit Considerations of Mitigation Measures on Acrylamide Content of Foods - A Case Study on Potatoes, Cereals and CoffeeBritish Journal of Nutrition 99 (2008) Supl.2.
Article: Changes in free amino acids and sugars in potatoes due to sulfate fertilization and the effect on acrylamide formation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To examine how sulfur deprivation may affect acrylamide formation in cooked potatoes, three varieties of potato were grown under conditions of either severe sulfur deprivation or an adequate supply of sulfur. In all three varieties sulfur deprivation led to a decrease in acrylamide formation, even though the levels of sugars, which are acrylamide precursors, were higher in tubers of the sulfur-deprived plants. In one variety the concentration of free asparagine, the other precursor for acrylamide, was also higher. There was a very close correlation between the concentration of asparagine in the tubers expressed as a proportion of the total free amino acid pool and the formation of acrylamide upon cooking, whereas sugars were poorly correlated with acrylamide. In potatoes, where concentrations of sugars are usually limiting, competition between asparagine and other amino acids participating in the Maillard reaction may be a key determinant of the amount of acrylamide that is formed during processing.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2007; 55(13):5363-6. · 2.82 Impact Factor