Expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) proteins in human glomerular mesangial cells
ABSTRACT Mesangial cells are located within glomerular capillary loops and contribute to the physiological regulation of glomerular hemodynamics. The function of mesangial cells is controlled by a variety of ion channels in the plasma membrane, including nonselective cation channels, receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, and recently identified store-operated Ca2+ channels. Although the significance of these channels has been widely acknowledged, their molecular identities are still unknown. Recently, the members of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) protein family have been demonstrated to behave as cation channels. The present study was performed to identify the isoforms of endogenous TRPC proteins in human mesangial cells (HMCs) and their interactions. Western blotting showed that TRPC1, 3, 4, and 6 were expressed in cultured HMCs. Consistently, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed specific stainings for TRPC1, 3, 4, and 6 with predominant intracellular localization. However, TRPC5 and 7 were not detectable at protein level by either Western blotting or immunofluorescent staining. The expression of TRPC1, 3, 4, and 6 was also observed in rat and human glomeruli using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation experiments and immunofluorescent double staining displayed that TRPC1 had physical interaction with TRPC4 and 6, while no interactions were detected among other isoforms of TRPCs. Ca2+ fluorescent ratiometry measurement showed that store-operated Ca2+ entry in HMCs was significantly reduced by knocking down TRPC1, but enhanced by overexpressing TRPC1. These results suggest that HMCs specifically express isoforms of TRPC1, 3, 4, and 6 proteins. These isoforms of TRPCs might selectively assemble to form functional complexes.
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ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this review is to address the progress towards small molecule modulators of human Transient Receptor Potential Canonical proteins (TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6 and TRPC7). These proteins generate channels for calcium and sodium ion entry. They are relevant to many mammalian cell types including acinar gland cells, adipocytes, astrocytes, cardiac myocytes, cochlea hair cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, leukocytes, mast cells, mesangial cells, neurones, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, platelets, podocytes, smooth muscle cells, skeletal muscle, and tumour cells. There are broad-ranging positive roles of the channels in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, survival and turning, vascular permeability, hypertrophy, wound-healing, hypo-adiponectinaemia, angiogenesis, neointimal hyperplasia, oedema, thrombosis, muscle endurance, lung hyper-responsiveness, glomerular filtration, gastrointestinal motility, pancreatitis, seizure, innate fear, motor coordination, saliva secretion, mast cell degranulation, cancer cell drug resistance, survival after myocardial infarction, efferocytosis, hypo-matrix metalloproteinase, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation. Known small molecule stimulators of the channels include hyperforin, genistein and rosiglitazone, but there is more progress with inhibitors, some of which have promising potency and selectivity. The inhibitors include 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, 2-aminoquinolines, 2-aminothiazoles, fatty acids, isothiourea derivatives, naphthalene sulphonamides, N-phenylanthranilic acids, phenylethylimidazoles, piperazine/piperidine analogues, polyphenols, pyrazoles, and steroids. A few of these agents are starting to be useful as tools for determining the physiological and pathophysiological functions of TRPC channels. We suggest that the pursuit of small molecule modulators for TRPC channels is important but that it requires substantial additional effort and investment before we can reap the rewards of highly potent and selective pharmacological modulators.British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2013; DOI:10.1111/bph.12274 · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1), a widely expressed calcium (Ca(2+))-permeable channel, is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Ca(2+) influx through stretch-activated channels, possibly formed by TRPC1, induces muscle-cell damage in the mdx mouse, an animal model of DMD. In this study, we showed that TRPC1, caveolin-3 and Src-kinase protein levels are increased in mdx muscle compared with wild type. TRPC1 and caveolin-3 colocalised and co-immunoprecipitated. Direct binding of TRPC1-CFP to caveolin-3-YFP was confirmed in C2 myoblasts by fluorescence energy resonance transfer (FRET). Caveolin-3-YFP targeted TRPC1-CFP to the plasma membrane. Hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased Src activity and enhanced Ca(2+) influx, but only in C2 myoblasts co-expressing TRPC1 and caveolin-3. In mdx muscle, Tiron, a ROS scavenger, and PP2, a Src inhibitor, reduced stretch-induced Ca(2+) entry and increased force recovery. Because ROS production is increased in mdx/DMD, these results suggest that a ROS-Src-TRPC1/caveolin-3 pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of mdx/DMD.Journal of Cell Science 08/2008; 121(Pt 13):2246-55. DOI:10.1242/jcs.032003 · 5.33 Impact Factor