Expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) proteins in human glomerular mesangial cells.
ABSTRACT Mesangial cells are located within glomerular capillary loops and contribute to the physiological regulation of glomerular hemodynamics. The function of mesangial cells is controlled by a variety of ion channels in the plasma membrane, including nonselective cation channels, receptor-operated Ca2+ channels, and recently identified store-operated Ca2+ channels. Although the significance of these channels has been widely acknowledged, their molecular identities are still unknown. Recently, the members of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) protein family have been demonstrated to behave as cation channels. The present study was performed to identify the isoforms of endogenous TRPC proteins in human mesangial cells (HMCs) and their interactions. Western blotting showed that TRPC1, 3, 4, and 6 were expressed in cultured HMCs. Consistently, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed specific stainings for TRPC1, 3, 4, and 6 with predominant intracellular localization. However, TRPC5 and 7 were not detectable at protein level by either Western blotting or immunofluorescent staining. The expression of TRPC1, 3, 4, and 6 was also observed in rat and human glomeruli using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation experiments and immunofluorescent double staining displayed that TRPC1 had physical interaction with TRPC4 and 6, while no interactions were detected among other isoforms of TRPCs. Ca2+ fluorescent ratiometry measurement showed that store-operated Ca2+ entry in HMCs was significantly reduced by knocking down TRPC1, but enhanced by overexpressing TRPC1. These results suggest that HMCs specifically express isoforms of TRPC1, 3, 4, and 6 proteins. These isoforms of TRPCs might selectively assemble to form functional complexes.
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ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this review is to address the progress towards small molecule modulators of human Transient Receptor Potential Canonical proteins (TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6 and TRPC7). These proteins generate channels for calcium and sodium ion entry. They are relevant to many mammalian cell types including acinar gland cells, adipocytes, astrocytes, cardiac myocytes, cochlea hair cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, leukocytes, mast cells, mesangial cells, neurones, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, platelets, podocytes, smooth muscle cells, skeletal muscle, and tumour cells. There are broad-ranging positive roles of the channels in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, survival and turning, vascular permeability, hypertrophy, wound-healing, hypo-adiponectinaemia, angiogenesis, neointimal hyperplasia, oedema, thrombosis, muscle endurance, lung hyper-responsiveness, glomerular filtration, gastrointestinal motility, pancreatitis, seizure, innate fear, motor coordination, saliva secretion, mast cell degranulation, cancer cell drug resistance, survival after myocardial infarction, efferocytosis, hypo-matrix metalloproteinase, vasoconstriction and vasodilatation. Known small molecule stimulators of the channels include hyperforin, genistein and rosiglitazone, but there is more progress with inhibitors, some of which have promising potency and selectivity. The inhibitors include 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, 2-aminoquinolines, 2-aminothiazoles, fatty acids, isothiourea derivatives, naphthalene sulphonamides, N-phenylanthranilic acids, phenylethylimidazoles, piperazine/piperidine analogues, polyphenols, pyrazoles, and steroids. A few of these agents are starting to be useful as tools for determining the physiological and pathophysiological functions of TRPC channels. We suggest that the pursuit of small molecule modulators for TRPC channels is important but that it requires substantial additional effort and investment before we can reap the rewards of highly potent and selective pharmacological modulators.British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 1, the first mammalian homologue of Drosophila trp gene, is distributed widely in mammalian cells and is involved in many physiological functions. TRPC1 is reported to be functional following heteromeric formation with other TRPC channels such as TRPC4 or TRPC5. It is known that the composition of this widely distributed TRPC1 is far from simple; functionality of such channels has been highly controversial. Furthermore, TRPC1 gene is known to have two splicing variants; one encodes long (TRPC1α) and the other encodes short (TRPC1β) TRPC1 isoforms, respectively. In this study, we examined the functionality of TRPC1/4 channels using various activation systems. Gq/11-coupled receptor (e.g., M1 or M3 receptors) stimulation significantly increased TRPC1α/4 currents but induced mild activation of TRPC1β/4. In addition, when expressed with TRPC4, TRPC1α acted as a pore-constituting subunit and not a β ancillary subunit. Multimerized with TRPC4, TRPC1α also generated strong pore field strength. We also found that Gi/o-coupled receptor (e.g., M2 receptor) stimulation was insufficient to activate TRPC1α/4 and TRPC1β/4 channels but selectively activated TRPC4 homomeric channels. These findings demonstrate that TRPC1/4 channel shows dynamic gating property depending on TRPC1 isoform subtypes and receptor stimulation system. Therefore, careful discrimination of the specificity of TRPC1 isoforms and upstream activation system is important in thorough understanding of TRPC1 and TRPC1/4 channels.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 08/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A key role for podocytes in the pathogenesis of proteinuric renal diseases has been established. Angiotensin II causes depolarization and increased intracellular calcium concentration in podocytes; members of the cation TRPC channels family, particularly TRPC6, are proposed as proteins responsible for calcium flux. Angiotensin II evokes calcium transient through TRPC channels and mutations in the gene encoding the TRPC6 channel result in the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Here we examined the effects of angiotensin II on intracellular calcium ion levels and endogenous channels in intact podocytes of freshly isolated decapsulated mouse glomeruli. An ion channel with distinct TRPC6 properties was identified in wild-type, but was absent in TRPC6 knockout mice. Single-channel electrophysiological analysis found that angiotensin II acutely activated native TRPC-like channels in both podocytes of freshly isolated glomeruli and TRPC6 channels transiently overexpressed in CHO cells; the effect was mediated by changes in the channel open probability. Angiotensin II evoked intracellular calcium transients in the wild-type podocytes, which was blunted in TRPC6 knockout glomeruli. Pan-TRPC inhibitors gadolinium and SKF 96365 reduced the response in wild-type glomerular epithelial cells, whereas the transient in TRPC6 knockout animals was not affected. Thus, angiotensin II-dependent activation of TRPC6 channels in podocytes may have a significant role in the development of kidney diseases.Kidney International advance online publication, 19 March 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.71.Kidney International 03/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor