Eye and respiratory symptoms in poultry processing workers exposed to chlorine by-products
ABSTRACT CDC/NIOSH responded to a request to investigate complaints of eye and respiratory irritation among workers in a poultry processing facility's evisceration department.
Investigators administered symptom questionnaires and sampled for chlorine and chloramines. Spirometry was performed on workers before and after their work shift.
Symptoms were significantly more prevalent in evisceration workers than in dark meat workers (a control group). Air concentrations of chloramine compounds (i.e., trichloramine and 'soluble chlorine') were significantly higher in the evisceration area than the dark meat area. Exposure levels were significantly higher for employees reporting various symptoms compared to employees not reporting those symptoms. Mean trichloramine exposure concentrations were significantly higher in workers with significant cross-shift declines in lung function; air concentrations of 'soluble chlorine' were higher as well, however, not significantly so.
Results of this evaluation suggest a health hazard may exist from exposure to chloramines.
SourceAvailable from: tspace.library.utoronto.ca
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ABSTRACT: Ten indoor swimming pools in Taipei, Taiwan were included in the study to assess the exposure of people to airborne trichloramine (NCl3) and also to discover the factors that might affect the associated concentrations. An active air sampling method was performed to determine the levels of NCl3, while questionnaires were administered to swimming pool workers, including lifeguards, swimming instructors, and management employees. The results show that the concentrations of trichloramine ranged from 0.017 to 0.15mgm(-3), which were generally lower than what have been reported from other studies. Symptoms of sore throat and phlegm were more frequent among lifeguards and swimming instructors (exposure group) than management employees (reference group) (odds ratios were 11.28 and 4.22 for sore throat and phlegm, respectively). It seems that the current exposure limit for airborne NCl3, which was recommended by WHO, was not lower enough to protect the health of pool attendants. Regulated level of free available chlorine in Taipei (i.e., 0.3-0.7ppm) is lower than what is required in other countries (e.g., 1-3ppm in the UK). This might be the main reason why the concentrations of NCl3 reported elsewhere were higher than what were found in this research. Further international comparisons will help to elucidate if low free chlorine concentration should be adopted as an operating standard. For the indoor swimming pools in Taipei, the air quality is suggested to be improved, since even with the low concentrations of NCl3, higher respiratory ailments among pool workers were observed.Science of The Total Environment 06/2013; 461-462C:317-322. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.012 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of airway obstruction among Latino poultry processing workers. Data were collected from 279 poultry processing workers and 222 other manual laborers via spirometry and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants employed in poultry processing reported the activities they perform at work. Participants with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV--1) or FEV1/forced expiratory volume (FVC) below the lower limits of normal were categorized as having airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was identified in 13% of poultry processing workers and 12% of the comparison population. Among poultry processing workers, the highest prevalence of airway obstruction (21%) occurred among workers deboning chickens (prevalence ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 3.15). These findings identify variations in the prevalence of airway obstruction across categories of work activities.Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 05/2013; DOI:10.1080/19338244.2013.787965 · 0.47 Impact Factor