Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a myocardial disease characterized by progressive depression of myocardial contractile function and ventricular dilatation. Thirty percent of DCM patients belong to the inherited genetic form; the rest may be idiopathic, viral, autoimmune, or immune-mediated associated with a viral infection. Disturbances in humoral and cellular immunity have been described in cases of myocarditis and DCM. A number of autoantibodies against cardiac cell proteins have been identified in DCM. In this study, we have profiled the autoantibody repertoire of plasma from DCM patients against a human protein array consisting of 37,200 redundant, recombinant human proteins and performed qualitative and quantitative validation of these putative autoantigens on protein microarrays to identify novel putative DCM specific autoantigens. In addition to analyzing the whole IgG autoantibody repertoire, we have also analyzed the IgG3 antibody repertoire in the plasma samples to study the characteristics of IgG3 subclass antibodies. By combining screening of a protein expression library with protein microarray technology, we have detected 26 proteins identified by the IgG antibody repertoire and 6 proteins bound by the IgG3 subclass. Several of these autoantibodies found in plasma of DCM patients, such as the autoantibody against the Kv channel-interacting protein, are associated with heart failure.
"Protein chip technology is becoming an increasingly established technique, not only for characterizing specific proteins or even proteomes, but also for clinical applications. Although routine clinical use of microarray technology still is in its early phase, antibody microarrays have already been developed for a number of clinical diagnostic applications      . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antibody microarrays have become widespread, but their use for quantitative analyses in clinical samples has not yet been established. We investigated an immunoassay based on nanoporous silicon antibody microarrays for quantification of total prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in 80 clinical plasma samples, and provide quantitative data from a duplex microarray assay that simultaneously quantifies free and total PSA in plasma. To further develop the assay the porous silicon chips was placed into a standard 96-well microtiter plate for higher throughput analysis. The samples analyzed by this quantitative microarray were 80 plasma samples obtained from men undergoing clinical PSA testing (dynamic range: 0.14-44ng/ml, LOD: 0.14ng/ml). The second dataset, measuring free PSA (dynamic range: 0.40-74.9ng/ml, LOD: 0.47ng/ml) and total PSA (dynamic range: 0.87-295ng/ml, LOD: 0.76ng/ml), was also obtained from the clinical routine. The reference for the quantification was a commercially available assay, the ProStatus PSA Free/Total DELFIA. In an analysis of 80 plasma samples the microarray platform performs well across the range of total PSA levels. This assay might have the potential to substitute for the large-scale microtiter plate format in diagnostic applications. The duplex assay paves the way for a future quantitative multiplex assay, which analyzes several prostate cancer biomarkers simultaneously.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 08/2012; 414C:76-84. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2012.08.009 · 2.82 Impact Factor
"" Type II " tumours include high-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas. Our laboratory has developed protein array based technologies and methodologies since first developing the hEx1 protein expression library  with which we have performed studies on the binding of autoantibodies to arrayed proteins in alopecia areata and dilated cardiomyopathy  , binding of antibodies to proteins identified from tumour neovasculature in humans , context independent motif identification in the human proteome  and of identification of novel protein– protein interaction networks  . We have employed this library screening method as part of an ovarian cancer research consortium, Discovary, performing a pilot study on autoantibody identification screening the hEx1 protein library with ovarian cancer serum samples from a well characterised patient cohort with stage I ovarian cancer of mixed histology, stage III serous papillary adenocarcinoma, primary peritoneal carcinoma and normal/healthy individuals. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies represent an attractive biomarker for diagnostic assays principally due to the stability of immunoglobulin in patient serum facilitating measurement with conventional assays. Immune responses to tumorigenesis may facilitate detection of ovarian cancer in the early stages of the disease with identification of a panel of tumour specific autoantibodies. Despite the reporting of many tumour associated autoantibodies using arrays of tumour antigens, this has not led to the advance in diagnostic capability as rapidly as was initially expected. Here we examine the potential diagnostic utility of candidate autoantibody biomarkers identified via screening of serum samples on a high content human protein array from a unique cohort of early stage and late stage ovarian cancer patients. We analyse the performance of autoantibodies to the tumour suppressor protein p53 and the novel autoantigens alpha adducin and endosulfine alpha identified in our array screen. Each antigen has different performance characteristics using conventional ELISA format and Western blot immunoassay. The high attrition rate of promising autoantigens identified by array screening can in part be explained by the presentation of the epitope of the antigen in the subsequent method of validation and this study provides directions on maximising the potential of candidate biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics.
Journal of proteomics 03/2012; 75(15):4668-75. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2012.02.031 · 3.89 Impact Factor
"This approach lacks the specificity and accuracy needed for the precise identification of autoantibody targeted antigens. In search of an antibody detection method avoiding these pitfalls, antigen microarrays are a promising approach (Robinson et al., 2002; Lueking et al., 2005; Horn et al., 2006). Over the past years antigen microarrays have more and more been used for antibody based biomarker detection (Quintana et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and one of the leading causes of blindness. Autoantibody based immune processes are assumed to be involved in its pathogenesis. However, it is still unclear to what extent autoantibody patterns found in the eye (aqueous humor) are congruent to systemic autoantibodies (blood). Consistency would underline the specificity of known serum antibody markers for glaucoma. In this study we used antigen microarrays to analyze autoantibody reactivities in sera and corresponding aqueous humor samples of primary open-angle glaucoma patients (N=37) and non-glaucomatous controls (N=31). Compared to control subjects several divergent immunoreactivities were identified for the glaucoma group in both body fluids. Interestingly, 20% of the tested antigens revealed increased immunoreactivities (e.g., against HSP27, MBP, and α-1-antitrypsin) and 7.5% decreased immunoreactivities (e.g., against GFAP and β-L-crystallin), thus demonstrating a significant alteration of the autoantibody profiles in glaucoma patients. Using an artificial neural network in combination with a unique serum autoantibody pattern on prospective sera we were able to detect glaucoma with a specificity and sensitivity of approximately 93%. The intraindividual comparison revealed a strong correlation of detected immunoreactivities in sera and comparative aqueous humor samples in both study groups. These results emphasize the specificity of immunoreactions found in blood samples of glaucoma patients. Furthermore they indicate the necessity of analyzing not only up-regulated but also down-regulated antibody reactivities, which might be likewise relevant for the understanding of other diseases.
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