In the current classification, squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is categorized as VIN 1, 2 and 3 according to the degree of abnormality. There is neither evidence that the VIN 1-3 morphologic spectrum reflects a biologic continuum nor that VIN 1 is a cancer precursor. The VIN 2 and 3 category includes 2 types of lesion, which differ in morphology, biology and clinical features. VIN, usual type (warty, basaloid and mixed), is HPV related in most cases. Invasive squamous carcinomas of warty or basaloid type is associated with VIN, usual type. VIN, differentiated type, is seen particularly in older women with lichen sclerosus and/or squamous cell hyperplasia in some cases. Neither VIN, differentiated type, nor associated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is HPV related. The term VIN should apply only to histologically high grade squamous lesions (former terms, VIN 2 and VIN 3 and differentiated VIN 3). The term VIN 1 will no longer be used. Two categories should describe squamous VIN: VIN, usual type (encompassing former VIN 2 and 3 of warty, basaloid and mixed types) and VIN, differentiated type (VIN 3, differentiated type).
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
"The International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal disease (ISSVD) has proposed that VIN should not be graded but described as high-grade VIN lesions only (VIN 2 or VIN 3). The ISSVD has also recommended that the term low-grade VIN (VIN 1, or mild dysplasia) should not be used anymore and that such lesions should be classified as flat condyloma acuminatum, or given an appropriate descriptive term . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Condyloma acuminatum, intraepithelial neoplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma are three relatively frequent vulvar lesions. Condyloma acuminatum is induced by low risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV). Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and squamous cell carcinoma have different etiopathogenic pathways and are related or not with high risk HPV types. The goal of this paper is to review the main pathological and clinical features of these lesions. A special attention has been paid also to epidemiological data, pathological classification, and clinical implications of these diseases.
"Patients with the diagnosis of invasive cancer within one year from initial diagnosis of IN were also excluded in order to minimize falsely detecting preexisting invasive disease due to incorrect initial diagnosis. Low grade IN (formerly VIN I) was not considered an inclusion criterion since it had been omitted from the classification system for VIN developed by the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Diseases (ISSVD) in 2005 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The malignant potential of intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva and vagina after treatment is not well defined. Our objective was to examine risk factors for recurrence and invasive disease.
Four hundred sixty-four women with biopsy proven high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva and vagina were identified in the electronic databases of four colposcopy clinics. Inclusion criteria were a follow-up of more than one year, no history of invasive cancer and no invasive cancer within the first year after initial treatment. We investigated the potential factors associated with recurrence and progression using a logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Of the 411 eligible patients, 123 patients (29.9%) recurred later than one year after initial treatment and 24 patients (5.8%) progressed to invasive disease. According to multivariate analyses, the risk factors associated with recurrence were multifocality (OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 2.02 to 5.51), immunosuppression (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.09 to 5.81), excision as initial treatment (vs. laser evaporation; OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.91) and smoking (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.55). Risk factors for progression to invasive disease were immunosuppression (OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.30 to 12.25), multifocality (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.25 to 7.43) and smoking (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.16 to 7.60), but not treatment modality.
Laser evaporation combined with extensive biopsy is at least as efficacious as initial treatment of intraepithelial neoplasia with excision. Smoking is a risk factor for both recurrence and progression to invasive disease. Hence, smoking cessation should be advised and maintaining a long follow-up period due to late relapses is necessary.
"All biopsies and excision specimens were routinely fixed (4% buffered formalin) and paraffin embedded. Standard 4-mm thick haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were used for the classification of the lesions according to current WHO criteria and the recent modification of the ISSVD (Sideri et al, 2005). Finally, cytological and histological findings were correlated. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taking a biopsy is a standard procedure to make the correct diagnosis in patients with suspicious premalignant vulvar lesions. The use of a less invasive diagnostic tool as triage instrument to determine whether biopsy is necessary may improve patient comfort especially in patients with chronic vulvar disorders that may warrant consecutive biopsies. This study was conducted to investigate whether vulvar brush cytology is feasible and may be used to detect (pre)malignant vulvar lesions.
A pilot study was performed with patients having clinically normal vulvar skin, lichen sclerosus (LS), usual or differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell carcinoma. A total of 65 smears were taken with the use of a vulvar brush and biopsies were performed for histopathological analysis.
Out of 65 smears, 17 (26%) were discarded because of poor cellularity. A total of 28 of 29 (97%) smears with a histological proven (pre)malignancy had a smear classified as 'suspicious' or 'uncertain'. Cytology classified 11 smears as 'non-suspicious', of which 10 (91%) were indeed normal skin or LS. The accuracy, based on the presence of a lesion, for (pre)malignant lesions with the use of the brush showed a sensitivity of 97% and a negative predictive value of 88%.
Vulvar brush cytology is feasible and may be a first step in the development of a triage instrument to determine whether subsequent biopsy of a clinically (pre)malignant lesion is necessary.
British Journal of Cancer 12/2011; 106(2):269-73. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2011.533 · 4.84 Impact Factor