Gastric bypass as treatment for obesity: trends, characteristics, and complications.
ABSTRACT This paper describes national trends in gastric bypass procedures from 1998 through 2003 and explores the demographic and health profile of those who receive this procedure. Short-term outcomes such as length of stay and in-hospital complication rates are also examined.
Data on obese hospital inpatients who had gastric bypass were obtained from the 1998 to 2003 National Hospital Discharge Survey. Gastric bypass was reported for an estimated 288,000 discharges during the 6-year study period. Trends within the 6-year period were tested using weighted regression. Characteristics of gastric bypass patients were compared with those of other inpatients using a chi(2) test of independence and the two-sided t test.
The estimated number of hospital discharges with gastric bypass increased significantly, from 14,000 in 1998 to 108,000 in 2003. During this period, the average length of stay declined by 56% from 7.2 to 3.2 days. Gastric bypass patients were primarily women (84%), 25 to 54 years of age (82%), and privately insured (76%). A 1 in 10 complication rate was found for discharges with gastric bypass.
Gastric bypass procedures in the United States have increased rapidly since 1998, whereas the average hospital stay has decreased. The decreasing length of stay needs to be evaluated in conjunction with potential complication rates and the permanent change in anatomy and lifestyle that must accompany this procedure. Monitoring trends in use of this procedure is important, especially if reimbursement policies change and the epidemic of obesity continues.
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ABSTRACT: Complication rates for bariatric surgery have been reported primarily from academic centers with specialized programs. The rates may not reflect those occurring in the community. The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database maintained by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) was queried to determine the national incidence and complication rate for bariatric surgery as performed in the United States. The number of bariatric procedures rapidly increased from 6,868 in 1996 to 45,473 in 2001, with most of the increase attributable to a very large rise in the annual number of Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses performed. The in-hospital complication rate was 9.6% and 8.6% of patients has a length of stay exceeding 7 days. Cholecystectomies were performed concurrently in 28% of cases and were not associated with increases in complication rates or longer hospital stays. For those undergoing surgery, the most common preoperative comorbid conditions were hypertension (34%), arthritis (27%), GERD (22%), sleep apnea (22%), and diabetes (18%). The rate at which bariatric procedures are being performed is rapidly increasing, resulting in the need to establish practice standards. In-house complication rates derived from a cross section of US practices compare favorably with those reported from specialized centers. Based on these nationally representative data, the expected in-house clinically significant complication rate for bariatric operations is approximately 10%. As that is the average complication rate observed nationally, it serves as the benchmark to which bariatric surgery programs can compare themselves.The American Journal of Surgery 09/2004; 188(2):105-10. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bariatric procedures are increasingly performed but their impact on survival is unknown. We evaluated short- and longterm mortality rates of patients undergoing gastric bypass on a population level compared with a nonoperated cohort of patients with morbid obesity in a retrospective study, using the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System database and the Vital Statistics database. The study included all patients (age 18 to 65 years) from 1987 to 2001 who underwent gastric bypass with ICD-9 diagnostic codes for obesity. The comparator group included patients of similar age with a diagnosis of obesity or morbid obesity who did not have a bariatric procedure. Survival analysis was used to determine the association of surgeon experience on 30-day mortality and of the procedure on survival while controlling for age, gender, and comorbidity index. Of the 66,109 obese patients we evaluated, 3,328 had a bariatric procedure. Incidence of the procedure increased from 0.7 to 10.6 per 100,000 from 1987 to 2001, with a 2.5-fold increase in incidence rate of the procedure in the years after 1996 (incidence rate ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.4 to 2.7). Thirty-day mortality was 1.9% and was associated with surgical inexperience. Within the surgeon's first 19 procedures the odds of death within 30 days were 4.7 times higher (95% CI, 1.2 to 18.2) than at later points in a surgeon's case order. At 15 years followup, 16.3% of nonoperated patients had died as compared with 11.8% of patients who had the bariatric procedure. When survival was compared beginning 1 year after the procedure, the adjusted hazard for death was 33% lower than that of nonoperated patients (hazard ratio 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.85). Thirty-day mortality after gastric bypass is higher than previously reported and closely linked to surgeon inexperience. A modest overall survival benefit was associated with the procedure but a marked survival advantage was noted for patients who survive to the first postoperative year.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 11/2004; 199(4):543-51. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypothesis that weight-reduction (bariatric) surgery reduces long-term mortality in morbidly obese patients. Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The impact of surgically induced, long-term weight loss on this mortality is unknown. We used an observational 2-cohort study. The treatment cohort (n = 1035) included patients having undergone bariatric surgery at the McGill University Health Centre between 1986 and 2002. The control group (n = 5746) included age- and gender-matched severely obese patients who had not undergone weight-reduction surgery identified from the Quebec provincial health insurance database. Subjects with medical conditions (other then morbid obesity) at cohort-inception into the study were excluded. The cohorts were followed for a maximum of 5 years from inception. The cohorts were well matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. Bariatric surgery resulted in significant reduction in mean percent excess weight loss (67.1%, P < 0.001). Bariatric surgery patients had significant risk reductions for developing cardiovascular, cancer, endocrine, infectious, psychiatric, and mental disorders compared with controls, with the exception of hematologic (no difference) and digestive diseases (increased rates in the bariatric cohort). The mortality rate in the bariatric surgery cohort was 0.68% compared with 6.17% in controls (relative risk 0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.27), which translates to a reduction in the relative risk of death by 89%. This study shows that weight-loss surgery significantly decreases overall mortality as well as the development of new health-related conditions in morbidly obese patients.Annals of Surgery 09/2004; 240(3):416-23; discussion 423-4. · 6.33 Impact Factor